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IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - Detailed IGNOU Syllabus For MCA (1st to 6th Semester)

IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - Detailed IGNOU Syllabus For MCA (1st to 6th Semester)

Edited By Mohit Dhyani | Updated on Mar 14, 2022 11:27 AM IST | #IGNOU

IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - The concerned authorities at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) are responsible for preparing syllabus of IGNOU MCA 2022 programme. Candidates already enrolled in the course should be aware of the course curriculum for IGNOU MCA 2022.

It may be noted that IGNOU MCA 2022 syllabus is available at the official website for five semesters and the sixth semester is spared for project work only. Knowing the IGNOU MCA syllbus 2022 helps candidates to prepare well for the exams and also know the topics that are relevant. For a better understanding of topics to be covered under the syllabus of IGNOU MCA 2022, refer to the article below.

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IGNOU MCA Syllabus

IGNOU MCA Subjects

Blocks (As per IGNOU MCA syllabus)


Semester 1

Problem Solving and Programming (3 credits)

Block 1- An Introduction to C

Unit 1: Problem Solving

  • Problem - Solving Techniques

  • Design of Algorithms

  • Analysis of Algorithm Efficiency

  • Analysis of Algorithm Complexity

  • Flowcharts

Unit 2: Basics of C

  • What is a Program and what is a Programming Language?

  • C Language

  • Structure of a C Program

  • Writing a C Program

  • Compiling a C Program

  • Link and Run the C Program

  • Diagrammatic Representation of Program Execution Process

Unit 3: Variables and Constants

  • Character Set

  • Identifiers and Keywords

  • Data Types and Storage

  • Data Type Qualifiers

  • Variables

  • Declaring Variables

  • Initialising Variables

  • Constants

Unit 4: Expressions and Operators

  • Assignment Statements

  • Arithmetic Operators

  • Relational Operators

  • Logical Operators

  • Comma and Conditional Operators

  • Type Cast Operator

  • Size of Operator

  • C Shorthand

  • Priority of Operators

BLOCK 2: Control Statements, Arrays and Functions

Unit 5: Decision and Loop Control Statements

  • Decision Control Statements

  • Loop Control Statements

  • The Goto Statement

  • The Break Statement

  • The Continue Statement

Unit 6: Arrays

  • Array Declaration

  • Array Initialization

  • Subscript

  • Processing the Arrays

  • Multi-Dimensional Arrays

Unit 7: Strings

  • Declaration and Initialization of Strings

  • Display of Strings Using Different Formatting Techniques

  • Array of Strings

  • Built-in String Functions and Applications

  • Other String Functions

Unit 8: Functions

  • Definition of a Function

  • Declaration of a Function

  • Function Prototypes

  • The Return Statement

  • Types of Variables and Storage Classes

  • Types of Function Invoking

  • Call by Value

  • Recursion

BLOCK 3: Structures, Pointers and File Handling

Unit 9: Structures and Unions

  • Declaration of Structures

  • Accessing the Members of a Structure

  • Initializing Structures

  • Structures as Function Arguments

  • Structures and Arrays

  • Unions

  • Initializing a Union

  • Accessing the Members of a Union

Unit 10: Pointers

  • Pointers and their Characteristics

  • Address and Indirection Operators

  • Pointer Type Declaration and Assignment

  • Pointer Arithmetic

  • Passing Pointers to Functions

  • Arrays and Pointers

  • Array of Pointers

  • Pointers and Strings

Unit 11: The C Preprocessor

  • # define to Implement Constants

  • # define to Create Functional Macros

  • Reading from Other Files using # include

  • Conditional Selection of Code using #ifdef

  • Other Preprocessor Commands

  • Predefined Names Defined by Preprocessor

  • Macros vs Functions

Unit 12: Files

  • File Handling in C Using File Pointers

  • Input and Output using file pointers

  • Sequential Vs Random Access Files

  • Positioning the File Pointer

  • The Unbufferred I/O - The UNIX like File Routines

Computer Organisation and Assembly Language Programming (4 credits)

BLOCK 1: Introduction to Digital Circuits

Unit 1: The Basic Computer

  • The von Neumann Architecture

  • Instruction Execution: An Example

  • Instruction Cycle

  • Computers: Then and Now

Unit 2: The Data Representation

  • Data Representation

  • Number Systems

  • Decimal Representation in Computers

  • Alphanumeric Representation

  • Data Representation For Computation

Unit 3: Principles of Logic Circuits I

  • Logic Gates

  • Logic Circuits

  • Combinational Circuits

  • Design of Combinational Circuits

  • Examples of Logic Combinational Circuits

Unit 4: Principles of Logic Circuits II

  • Sequential Circuits: The Definition

  • Flip Flops

  • Sequential Circuit Design

  • Examples of Sequential Circuits

  • Design of a Sample Counter

BLOCK 2: Basic Computer Organisation

Unit 1: The Memory System

  • The Memory Hierarchy

  • RAM, ROM, DRAM, Flash Memory

  • RAID and its Levels

  • The Concepts of High Speed Memories

  • Virtual Memory

  • The Memory System of Micro-Computer

Unit 2: The Input/Output System

  • Input / Output Devices or External or Peripheral Devices

  • The Input Output Interface

  • The Device Controllers and its Structure

  • Device Drivers

  • Input Output Techniques

  • Input Output Processors

  • External Communication Interfaces

Unit 3: Secondary Storage Techniques

  • Secondary Storage Systems

  • Hard Drives

  • Removable Drives

  • Removable Storage Options

Unit 4: I/O Technology

  • Keyboard

  • Mouse

  • Video Cards

  • Monitors

  • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

  • Digital Camera

  • Sound Cards

  • Printers

  • Modems

  • Scanners

  • Power Supply

BLOCK 3: The Central Processing Unit

Unit 1: Instruction Set Architecture

  • Instruction Set Characteristics

  • Instruction Set Design Considerations

  • Addressing Schemes

  • Instruction Set and Format Design Issues

  • Example of Instruction Format

Unit 2: Registers, Micro-Operations and Instruction Execution

  • Basic CPU Structure

  • Register Organization

  • General Registers in a Processor

  • Micro-operation Concepts

  • Instruction Execution and Micro-operations

  • Instruction Pipelining

Unit 3: ALU Organisation

  • ALU Organisation

Unit 4: The Control Unit

  • The Control Unit

  • The Hardwired Control

  • Wilkes Control

  • The Micro-Programmed Control

  • The Micro-Instructions

  • The Execution of Micro-Program

Unit 5: Reduced Instruction Set Computer Architecture

  • Introduction to RISC

  • RISC Architecture

  • The Use of Large Register File

  • Comments on RISC

  • RISC Pipelining

BLOCK 4: Assembly Language Programming

Unit 1: Microprocessor Architecture

  • Microcomputer Architecture

  • Structure of 8086 CPU

  • Register Set of 8086

  • Instruction Set of 8086

  • Addressing Modes

Unit 2: Introduction to Assembly Language Programming

  • The Need and Use of the Assembly Language

  • Assembly Program Execution

  • An Assembly Program and its Components

  • Input Output in Assembly Program

  • The Types of Assembly Programs

  • How to Write Good Assembly Programs

Unit 3: Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)

  • Simple Assembly Programs

  • Programming With Loops and Comparisons

  • Programming for Arithmetic and String Operations

Unit 4: Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)

  • Use of Arrays in Assembly

  • Modular Programming

  • Interfacing Assembly Language Routines to High Level Language

  • Programs

  • Interrupts

  • Device Drivers in Assembly

Discrete Mathematics (2 credits)

BLOCK 1: Elementary Logic

Unit 1: Prepositional Calculus

  • Propositions

  • Logical Connectives

  • Logical Equivalence

  • Logical Quantifiers

Unit 2: Methods of Proof

  • What is a Proof?

  • Different Methods of Proof

  • Principle of Induction

Unit 3: Boolean Algebra and Circuits

  • Boolean Algebras

  • Logic Circuits

  • Boolean Functions

BLOCK 2: Basic Combinatorics

Unit 1: Sets, Relations and Functions

  • Introducing Sets

  • Operations on Sets

  • Relations

  • Functions

Unit 2: Combinatorics – An Introduction

  • Multiplication and Addition Principles

  • Permutations

  • Combinations

  • Binomial Coefficients

  • Combinatorial Probability

Unit 3: Some More Counting Principles

  • Pigeonhole Principle

  • Inclusion-Exclusion Principle

  • Applications of Inclusion – Exclusion

Unit 4: Partitions and Distributions

  • Integer Partitions

  • Distributions

Systems Analysis and Design (3 credits)

BLOCK 1: Introduction to Systems Development

Unit 1: Introduction to SAD

  • Fundamentals of System

  • Real Time Systems

  • Distributed Systems

  • Development of a successful System

  • Various Approaches for development of Information Systems

Unit 2: Systems Analyst-A Profession

  • Why do Businesses need Systems Analysts?

  • Users

  • Analysts in various functional areas

  • Role of a Systems Analyst

  • Duties of a Systems Analyst

  • Qualifications of a Systems Analyst

Unit 3: Process of System Development

  • Systems Development Life Cycle

  • Phases of SDLC

  • Product of SDLC Phases

  • Approaches to Development

  • Case Study

Unit 4: Introduction to Documentation of Systems

  • Concepts and process of

  • Documentation

  • Types of Documentation

  • Different Standard for Documentation

  • Documentation and Quality of Software

  • Good Practices for Documentation

BLOCK 2: Planning and Designing Systems

Unit 5 : Process of System Planning

  • Fact finding Techniques

  • Issues involved in Feasibility Study

  • Cost Benefit Analysis

  • Preparing Schedule

  • Gathering Requirements of System

Unit 6: Modular and Structured Design

  • Design Principles

  • Structure Charts

  • Modularity

Unit 7: System Design and Modelling

  • Logical and Physical Design

  • Process Modeling

  • Data Modeling

  • Process Specification Tools

  • Data Dictionary

BLOCK 3: More Design Issues and CASE Tools

Unit 8: Forms and Reports Design

  • Forms

  • Reports

  • Differences between Forms and Reports

  • Process of Designing Forms and Reports

  • Deliverables and Outcomes

  • Design Specifications

  • Types of Information

  • General Formatting Guidelines

  • Guidelines for Displaying Contents

  • Criteria for Form Design

  • Criteria for Report Design

Unit 9: Physical File Design and Database Design

  • Introduction to Database design

  • Design of Database Fields

  • Design of Physical Records

  • Design of Physical Files

  • Design of Database

  • Case Study

Unit 10: CASE Tools for Systems Development

  • Use of CASE tools by organizations

  • Components of CASE

  • Visual and Emerging CASE tools

BLOCK 4: Implementation and Security of Systems & MIS

Unit 11: Implementation and Maintenance of Systems

  • Implementation of Systems

  • Maintenance of Systems

Unit 12: Audit and Security of Computer Systems

  • Definition of Audit

  • Audit of Transactions on Computer

  • Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

  • Computer System and Security issue

  • Concurrent Audit Techniques

Unit 13: Management Information Systems

  • Role of MIS in an organization

  • Different kinds of Information Systems

Communication Skills (2 credits)

BLOCK 1: Skills Needed at the Workplace - I

Unit 1: The Process of Communication

  • Introduction: What is Communication?

  • The Process of Communication

  • Barriers to Communication

  • Different Types of Communication

  • Written vs. Oral Communication

  • Different Types of Face-to-Face Interactions

  • Characteristics and Conventions of Conversation

  • Conversational Problems of Second/Foreign Language Users

  • Difference between Conversation and Other Speech Events

Unit 2: Telephone Techniques

  • Warm Up

  • Speaking and Listening: Commonly Used Phrases in Telephone Conversations

  • Reading: Conference Calls

  • Vocabulary

  • Writing and Listening: Leaving a Message

  • Grammar and Usage: The Perfect Tenses

  • Pronunciation: Contracted Forms

Unit 3: Job Applications and Interviews

  • Warm up

  • Reading

  • Vocabulary: Apply for a Job

  • Curriculum Vitae

  • Language Focus: Some Useful Words

  • Study Skills: Preparing for an Interview

  • Listening

  • Speaking

  • Writing

Unit 4: Group Discussions

  • Reading

  • Writing Skills

  • Listening: How to be Successful in a Group Discussion

  • Study Skills

  • Language Focus

  • Vocabulary

  • Speaking

  • Grammar: Connectives

  • Pronunciation

Unit 5: Managing Organisational Structure

  • Warm Up: Ability to Influence and Lead

  • Reading: The Role of a Manager

  • Vocabulary: Leadership

  • Speaking and Listening

  • Language Focus: Degree of Probability

  • Grammar: Modals

  • Writing: Reports

  • Pronunciation

Unit 6: Meetings

  • Reading: A Successful Meeting

  • Speaking: One to One Meetings

  • Language Focus: Opening, Middle and Close

  • Study Skills: Editing

  • Listening: Criteria for Successful Meetings

  • Vocabulary

  • Grammar: Reporting Verbs

  • Writing: Memos

  • Pronunciation: Stress According to Part of Speech

Unit 7: Taking Notes and Preparing Minutes

  • Taking Notes

  • Preparing Minutes

  • Grammar: Using the Passive Voice

Unit 8: Presentation Skills – I

  • Reading: Presentation Skills

  • Grammar: Verbs often Required in Presentations

  • Language Focus

  • Listening: Importance of Body Language in Presentations

  • Speaking: Preparing an Outline of a Presentation

  • Pronunciation

Unit 9: Presentation Skills – II

  • Reading: Structure of Presentation

  • Study Skills: Visual Aids

  • Ending the Presentation

  • Language Focus: Talking about Increase and Decrease

  • Grammar: Prepositions

  • Listening: Podium Panic

  • Speaking

  • Pronunciation: Emphasizing the Important Words in Context

Unit 10: Negotiation Skills

  • Language Focus: Idiomatic Expressions

  • Study Skills: Process of Negotiations

  • Grammar: Phrasal Verbs

  • Listening: Effective Negotiations

  • Speaking

  • Writing

Internet Concepts and Web Design (2 credits)

BLOCK 1: Scripting Languages

Unit 1: The Internet

  • Classification of Networks

  • Networking Models

  • What is Packet Switching

  • Accessing the Internet

  • Internet Protocols

  • Internet Address

  • How does the Internet work

  • Intranet & Extranet

  • Internet Infrastructure

  • Protocols and Services on Internet

Unit 2: Introduction to HTML

  • What is HTML

  • Basic Tags of HTML

  • Formatting of Text

  • Working with Images

  • META Tag

Unit 3: Advanced HTML

  • Links

  • Lists

  • Tables

  • Frames

  • Forms

  • Some Special Tags

Unit 4: Introduction to JavaScript

  • JavaScript Variables and Data Types

  • Statements and Operators

  • Control Structures

  • Object-Based Programming

  • Message box in Javascript

  • Javascript with HTML

  • Forms

Unit 5: VB Script

  • What is VBScript

  • Adding VBScript Code to an HTML Page

  • Using Conditional Statements

  • Looping Through Code

  • VBScript Procedures

  • VBScript Coding Conventions

  • Dictionary Object in VBScript

  • Err Object

Unit 6: Dreamweaver

  • Using Dreamweaver

  • Create a Site Home Page

  • Design a Page in Layout View

  • Insert Images

  • Insert Text

  • Work in Standard View

  • View the Site Files

  • Link your Documents

BLOCK 2: Lab Manual

Section 1: HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

  • Basic of HTML

  • How to Create HTML Document

  • Steps for Creating a Simple HTML Program

Section 2: Advanced HTML

  • Advanced Topics of HTML

Section 3: JavaScript

  • Script Basics

  • Incorporating JavaScript into a Web Page

Section 4: VBScript

  • VBScript Basics

  • Incorporating VBScript into HTML Page

Section 5: Dreamweaver

  • How to Work in Dreamweaver??

  • How to save your file?

  • Adding Layers to the Timeline and Giving Motion to the Layer

  • Inserting Scripts

  • Inserting External Media in the Web Page

  • Adding SSI(Server-side include to the Page)

  • Adding CSS Style to your Page

  • Adding XML Files to your Page

  • To Export a Dreamweaver Document as XML File, checking entries, working in frames, windows control, the Java script URL.

Lab (C and Assembly Language Programming) (Lab Course) (2 credits)

Section 1 C Programming Lab

  • Salient Features of C

  • C Programming Using Borland Compiler

  • Using C with UNIX

  • Running C Programs using MS Visual C++

  • Program Development Life Cycle

  • List of Lab Assignments – Session wise

Section 2 Digital Logic Circuits

  • Logic Gates Circuit Simulation Program

  • Making a Logic Circuit Using Logic

  • A Revisit of Steps of Logic Circuit Design

  • Session-wise problems

Section 3 Assembly Language Programming

  • Assemblers

  • Assembly Programming File

  • Session-wise List of Programs

Semester 2

Data and File structures (4 credits)

BLOCK 1: Introduction to Algorithms and Data Structures

Unit 1: Analysis of Algorithms

  • Mathematical Background

  • Process of Analysis

  • Calculation of Storage Complexity

  • Calculation of Run Time Complexity

Unit 2 Arrays

  • Arrays and Pointers

  • Sparse Matrices

  • Polynomials

  • Representation of Arrays

  • Applications

Unit 3: Lists

  • Abstract Data Type-List

  • Array Implementation of Lists

  • Linked Lists-Implementation

  • Doubly Linked Lists-Implementation

  • Circularly Linked Lists-Implementation

  • Applications

BLOCK 2: Stacks, Queues and Trees

Unit 4: Stacks

  • Abstract Data Type-Stack

  • Implementation of Stack

  • Algorithmic Implementation of Multiple Stacks

  • Applications

Unit 5: Queues

  • Abstract Data Type-Queue

  • Implementation of Queue

  • Implementation of Multiple Queues

  • Implementation of Circular Queues

  • Implementation of DEQUEUE

Unit 6: Trees

  • Abstract Data Type-Tree

  • Implementation of Tree

  • Tree Traversals

  • Binary Trees

  • Implementation of Binary Tree

  • Binary Tree Traversals

  • Applications

BLOCK 3: Graph Algorithms and Searching Techniques

Unit 7: Advanced Trees

  • Binary Search Trees

  • AVL Trees

  • B-Trees

Unit 8: Graphs

  • Definitions

  • Shortest Path Algorithms

  • Minimum cost Spanning Trees

  • Breadth First Search

  • Depth First Search

  • Finding Strongly Connected Components

Unit 9: Searching

  • Linear Search

  • Binary Search

  • Applications

BLOCK 4: File Structures and Advanced Data Structures

Unit 10 Sorting

  • Internal Sorting

  • Sorting on Several Keys

Unit 11: Advanced Data Structures

  • Splay Trees

  • Red-Black trees

  • AA-Trees

Unit 12: File Structures

  • Terminology

  • File Organisation

  • Sequential Files

  • Direct File Organisation

  • Indexed Sequential File Organisation

Operating System Concepts and Networking Management (4 credits)

BLOCK 1: Operating System Fundamentals Networking

Unit 1: Graphical User Interface

  • What is Graphical User Interface

  • Evolution of Human and Machine Interaction

  • Common Graphical User Interfaces

  • Functionality of Graphical User Interface

  • GUI Design Consideration: psychological factors

  • GUI Design Consideration: standards

  • GUI Example

Unit 2: Introduction to Operating System

  • What is an Operating System?

  • Evolution of Operating System

  • Operating System Structure

  • Classification of Advanced Operating System

  • Characteristics of Modern Operating System

Unit 3: Introduction to Networking Concepts

  • Why Computer Networks

  • The Topologies

  • Characteristics of the OSI Layers

  • OSI Models and Communication between Systems

  • Interaction between OSI Model Layers

  • Protocols Types of Networks

  • Medium

  • Data Flow

  • Physical Connection

  • Transmission Media
    Connecting Devices

Unit 4: Internetworking: Concept, Architecture and Protocols

  • History of internetworking

  • Packet Switching

  • Internetworking Concepts

  • Internet Addresses Object-Based Programming

  • Configuring IP Addresses

  • TCP/ IP

  • Additional TCP/ IP – Related Protocols

  • Application Layer Protocols

  • World Wide Web

  • Domain Name System

  • SNMP and UDP

BLOCK 2: Linux Operating System

Unit 1: Introduction to Linux Operating System

  • Features of Linux

  • Drawbacks of Linux

  • Components of Linux

Unit 2: Linux Commands and Utilities

  • Entering the Machine

  • The File System

Unit 3: Linux Utilities and Editor

  • Some Useful Commands

  • Permission Modes and Standard Files

  • Pipes, Filters and Redirection

  • Shell Scripts

  • Graphical User Interface

  • Editor

Unit 4: User-to-User Communication

  • On-Line Communication

  • Off-Line Communication

  • Apache Server Settings

  • Network Server Settings

Unit 5: Unix System Administration

  • System Administration

  • Installing Linux

  • Booting the System

  • Maintaining User Accounts

  • File Systems and Special Files

  • Backups and Restoration

BLOCK 3: Windows 2000

Unit 1: Windows 2000 Networking

  • Windows 2000 Operating System Architecture

  • Using the Mapped Drive

  • A Few Important Facts About Windows 2000 Usages

Unit 2: Managing Windows 2000 Server

  • Using Windows 2000 and Client

  • Logging on to the Network

  • Browsing Network Resources

  • Accessing Network Resources Using My Network Places

  • Mapping a Folder

Unit 3: Advanced Windows 2000 Networking

  • Windows 2000 Domains, Workgroups & Trusted Relationships

  • User Administration

  • Remote Access

Unit 4: Windows XP Networking

  • Introduction to Windows XP Networking

  • Windows XP in File System

  • Sharing Network Resources in Windows XP

  • Enabling Offline File Features

BLOCK 4: Security and Management

Unit 1: Security Concepts

  • Goals of Computer Security

  • Security Problem and Requirements

  • Threat and Vulnerabilities

  • User Authentication

  • Security System and Facilities

  • Cryptography

  • Intrusion detection

  • Computer-Security Classifications

Unit 2: Computer Security

  • Hardening Operating System and Application Code

  • Hardening File System Security

  • Hardening Local Security Policies

  • Hardening Services

  • Hardening Default Accounts

  • Hardening Network Activity

  • Fault Tolerant System

  • BACKUP and UPS

Unit 3: Security and Management-I

  • Main Issues In Windows Security Management

  • Domain Controller

  • Windows Resources Management

  • Registry Management

  • Printer Management

  • Managing Windows 2000 Operating System

  • Active Directory

  • Windows 2000 DNS Management

  • Managing Group Policy

Unit 4: Security and Management-II

  • User Authentication Management

  • User and Group Management

  • Resource Management

  • Windows 2000 Network – Security and Management

  • Encrypting File System Management

Introduction to Database Management Systems (3 credits)

BLOCK 1: The Database Management System Concepts

Unit 1: The Basic Concepts

  • Need for a Database Management System

  • The Logical DBMS Architecture

  • Physical DBMS Architecture

  • Commercial Database Architecture

  • Data Models

Unit 2: Relational And ER Models

  • The Relational Model

  • Relational Constraints

  • Relational Algebra

  • Entity Relationship (ER) Model

  • E-R Diagram

  • Conversion of E-R Diagram to Relational Database

Unit 3: Database Integrity and Normalisation

  • Relational Database Integrity

  • Redundancy and Associated Problems

  • Single-Valued Dependencies

  • Single-Valued Normalisation

  • Desirable Properties of Decomposition

  • Rules of Data Normalisation

Unit 4: File Organisation in DBMS

  • Physical Database Design Issues

  • Storage of Database on Hard Disks

  • File Organisation and Its Types

  • Types of Indexes

  • Index and Tree Structure

  • Multi-key File Organisation99

  • Importance of File Organisation in Databases

BLOCK 2: Structured Query Language and Transaction Management

Unit 1: The Structures Query Language

  • What is SQL?

  • Data Definition Language

  • Data Manipulation Language

  • Data Control

  • Database Objects: Views, Sequences, Indexes and Synonyms

  • Table Handling

  • Nested Queries

Unit 2: Transactions and Concurrency Management

  • The Transactions

  • The Concurrent Transactions

  • The Locking Protocol

  • Deadlock and its Prevention

  • Optimistic Concurrency Control

Unit 3: Database Recovery and Security

  • What is Recovery?

  • Recovery Techniques

  • Security & Integrity

  • Authorization

Unit 4: Distributed and Client Server Databases

  • Need for Distributed Database Systems

  • Structure of Distributed Database

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of DDBMS

  • Design of Distributed Databases

  • Client Server Databases

BLOCK 3: Application Development: Development of a Hospital Management System

  • Need to Develop the Hospital Management System (An HMS)

  • Creating a Database for HMS

BLOCK 4: Study Centre Management System: A Case Study

  • Software Development Process: Analysis

  • System Designing

  • Issues relating to Software Development, Testing and Maintenance

Object Oriented Technology and Java Programming (3 credits)

BLOCK 1: Object Oriented Technology and Java

Unit 1: Object Oriented Methodology-1

  • Paradigms of Programming Languages

  • Evolution of OO Methodology

  • Basic Concepts of OO Approach

  • Comparison of Object Oriented and Procedure Oriented Approaches

  • Benefits of OOPs

  • Introduction to Common OO Language

  • Applications of OOPs

Unit 2: Object Oriented Methodology-2

  • Classes and Objects

  • Abstraction and Encapsulation

  • Inheritance

  • Method Overriding and Polymorphism

Unit 3: Java Language Basics

  • Introduction To Java

  • Primitive Data Type And Variables

  • Java Operators

Unit 4: Expressions, Statements and Arrays

  • Expressions

  • Statements

  • Control Statements

  • Selection Statements

  • Iterative Statements

  • Jump Statements

  • Arrays

BLOCK 2: Object Oriented Concepts and Exceptions Handling

Unit 1: Class and Objects

  • Class Fundamentals

  • Introducing Methods

  • Overloading constructors

  • Method Overloading

  • Garbage Collection

  • The Finalize ( ) Method

Unit 2: Inheritance and Polymorphism

  • Inheritance Basics

  • Access Control

  • Multilevel Inheritance

  • Method Overriding

  • Abstract Classes

  • Polymorphism

  • Final Keyword

Unit 3: Packages and Interfaces

  • Package

  • Accessibility of Packages

BLOCK 3: Multithreading, I/O and String Handling

Unit 1: Multithreaded Programming

  • Multithreading: An Introduction

  • The Main Thread

  • Java Thread Model

  • Thread Priorities

  • Synchronization in Java

  • Inter-thread Communication

Unit 2 : I/O in Java

  • I/O Basics

  • Streams and Stream Classes

  • The Predefined Streams

  • Reading from, and Writing to, Console

  • Reading and Writing Files

  • The Transient and Volatile Modifiers

  • Using Instance of Native Methods

Unit 3: Strings and Characters

  • Fundamentals of Characters and Strings

  • The String Class

  • String Operations

  • Data Conversion using Value Of () Methods

  • String Buffer Class and Methods

Unit 4: Exploring Java I/O

  • Java I/O Classes and Interfaces

  • I/O Stream Classes

  • Using Package Members

  • Interfaces

  • Implementing Interfaces

  • Interface and Abstract Classes

  • Extends and Implements Together

Unit 5: Exceptions Handling

  • Exception

  • Handling of Exception

  • Types of Exceptions

  • Throwing Exceptions

  • Writing Exception Subclasses

  • Text Streams

  • Stream Tokenizer

  • Serialization

  • Buffered Stream

  • Print Stream

  • Random Access File

BLOCK 4: Applets Programming and Advance Java Concepts

Unit 1: Applets

  • The Applet Class

  • Applet Architecture

  • An Applet Skeleton: Initialization and Termination

  • Handling Events

  • HTML Applet Tag

Unit 2: Graphics and User Interfaces

  • Graphics Contexts and Graphics Objects

  • User Interface Components

  • Building User Interface with AWT

  • Swing-based GUI

  • Layouts and Layout Manager

  • Container

Unit 3: Networking Features

  • Socket Overview

  • Reserved Parts and Proxy Servers

  • Internet Addressing: Domain

  • Naming Services (DNS)

  • JAVA and the net: URL

  • TCP/IP Sockets

  • Datagrams

Unit 4: Advance Java

  • Java Database Connectivity

  • An Overview of RMI Applications

  • Java Servlets

  • Java Beans

Lab (Data Structures using C, WINDOWS 2000, LINUX / UNIX, Java and MS-ACCESS, My SQL) (4 credits)

SECTION 1: Data and File Structures Lab Manual

  • Arrays

  • Structures

  • Linked Lists

  • Stacks

  • Queues

  • Trees

  • Advanced Trees

  • Graphs

  • Searching

  • Sorting

SECTION 2: Operating Systems and Networking Lab

  • Overview of Windows 2000

  • Unix and Linux

  • Advanced concepts of Local Area Network

  • Network administration of Windows 2000

  • LINUX administration

  • Unix Networking

  • Installation and Configuration of the networking services like TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, FTP, SMTP


  • Introduction to MS-Access

  • Database Creation

  • Use of DBMS Tools/ Client-Server Mode

  • Forms and Procedures

SECTION 4: Java Programming Lab

  • Programming with Java

  • PATH and CLASSPATH Setting

  • Example Programs

  • List of Lab Assignments

Semester 3

Design and Analysis of Algorithms (4 credits)

BLOCK 1 Introduction to Algorithmics

Unit 1: Elementary Algorithmics

  • Example of an Algorithm

  • Problems and Instances

  • Characteristics of an Algorithm

  • Problems, Available Tools & Algorithms

  • Building Blocks of Algorithms

  • Outline of Algorithms

Unit 2: Some pre-requisites and Asymptotic Bounds

  • Some Useful Mathematical Functions & Notations

  • Mathematical Expectation

  • Principle of Mathematical Induction

  • Concept of Efficiency of an Algorithm

  • Well Known Asymptotic Functions & Notations

Unit 3: Basics of Analysis

  • Analysis of Algorithm ─ Simple Example

  • Well Known Sorting Algorithms

  • Best-Case and Worst-Case Analyses

  • Analysis of Non-Recursive Control Structures

  • Recursive Constructs

  • Solving Recurrences

  • Average-Case & Amortized Analysis

BLOCK 2 Design Techniques-I

Unit 1: Divide-and-Conquer

  • General Issues in Divide-And Conquer

  • Integer Multiplication

  • Binary Search

  • Sorting

  • Finding the Median

  • Matrix Multiplication

  • Exponentiation

Unit 2: Graphs Algorithms

  • Examples

  • Traversing Trees

  • Depth-First Search

  • Breadth-First Search

  • Best-First Search & Minimax Principle

  • Topological Sort

BLOCK 3 Design Techniques - II

Unit 1 Dynamic Programming

  • The Problem of Making Change

  • The Principle of Optimality

  • Chained Matrix Multiplication

  • Matrix Multiplication Using Dynamic Programming

Unit 2 Greedy Algorithms

  • Some Examples

  • Formalization of Greedy Technique

  • Minimum Spanning Trees

  • Prim’s Algorithm

  • Kruskal’s Algorithm

  • Dijkstra’s Algorithm

Unit 3 Models for Executing Algorithms –I: FA

  • Regular Expressions

  • Regular Languages

  • Finate Automata

Unit 4 Models for Executing Algorithms –II PDFA & CFG

  • Formal Language & Grammer

  • Context Free Grammer (CFG)

  • Pushdown Automata (PDA)

BLOCK 4 Complexity & Completeness

Unit 1: Models for Executing Algorithms – III :™

  • Prelude to Formal Definition

  • Turing Machine: Formal Definition and Examples

  • Instantaneous Description and Transition Diagram

  • Some Formal Definitions

  • Observations

  • Turing Machine as a Computer of Functions

Unit 2 Algorithmically Unsolvable Problems

  • Decidable And Undecidable Problems

  • The Halting Problem

  • Reduction to Another Undecidable Problem

  • Undecidable Problems for CFL

  • Other Undecidable Problems

Unit 3 Complexity of Algorithms

  • Notations for the Growth Rates of Functions

Object Oriented Analysis and Design (3 credits)

BLOCK 1: Object Oriented Modeling and UML

Unit 1: Introduction to Object Oriented Modelling

  • Object Oriented Modeling

  • Characteristics Object Oriented Modeling

  • An Object Model

  • Benefits of OO Modeling

  • Introduction to OOAD tools

Unit 2: Object Oriented Analysis

  • Object Oriented Analysis

  • Problem Statement: an Example

  • Differences between Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis

  • Analysis Techniques

  • Adding Operations

  • Analysis Iteration

Unit 3: Using UML

  • UML: Introduction

  • Object Model Notations:

  • Basic Concepts

  • Structural Diagrams

  • Behavioral Diagrams

  • Modeling with Objects

BLOCK 2: Object Oriented Design

Unit 4: System Design

  • System Design: An Object Oriented Approach

  • Breaking into Subsystems

  • Concurrency Identification

  • Management of data store

  • Controlling events between Objects

  • Handling Boundary Conditions

Unit 5: Object Design

  • Object Design for Processing

  • Object Design Steps

  • Designing a Solution

  • Choosing Algorithms

  • Choosing Data Structures

  • Defining Classes and delegation of Responsibilities to Methods

Unit 6: Advance Object Design

  • Control and its Implementation

  • Inheritance Adjustment

  • Association: Design

  • Object Representation

  • Design Optimization

  • Design Documentation

BLOCK 3: Modeling

Unit 7: Object Modeling

  • Advance Modeling Concepts

  • Multiple Inheritance

  • Generalization as an Extension

  • Generalization as a Restriction

  • Metadata

  • Constraints

  • An Object Model

Unit 8: Dynamic Modeling

  • Events

  • State and State Diagram

  • Elements of State Diagrams

  • Examples of State Diagrams

  • Advance Concepts in Dynamic Modeling

  • Concurrency

  • A Dynamic model

Unit 9: Functional Modeling

  • Functional Models

  • Data Flow Diagrams

  • Features of a DFD

  • Design flaws in DFD

  • A Functional model

  • Relationship between Object, Dynamic, and Functional Models

Block 4: Implementation

Unit 10: Implementation Strategies

  • Implementation

  • Unidirectional Implementation

  • Bi-directional Implementation

  • Implementing associations

  • Implementing Constraints

  • Implementing Statecharts

  • Persistency

Unit 11: Object Mapping with Databases

  • Relational Database Schema for Object Modes

  • Object Classes to Database Tables

  • Mapping Associations to Tables

  • Mapping Generalizations to Tables

  • Interfacing to Database

  • Object Mapping with Databases: an Example

Unit 12: Case Study

  • This unit will cover all the OOAD aspects Covered in previous 11(eleven) units of this course.

Advanced Discrete Mathematics (2 credits)

BLOCK 1: Recurrences

Unit 1: Recurrence Relations

  • The Fibonacci Sequences, The Tower of Hanoi, Catalan Numbers

  • Related Definitions

  • Divide and Conquer Methods

Unit 2 Generating Functions

  • Definitions and Constructions

  • Applications for Finding the Number of Integers Solutions of Linear Equations

  • Exponential Generating Functions

  • Solving Recurrence Relations using Generating Functions

  • Applying Generating Functions for Combinatorial Identities and Partitions

Unit 3 Solving Recurrences

  • Linear Homogeneous Recurrences

  • Linear Non- Homogeneous Recurrences

  • Methods of Inspection, Telescoping Sums, Iteration, Substitution

BLOCK 2: Graph Theory

Unit 1: Basic Properties of Graphs

  • What Graphs are

  • Degree, Regularity and Isomorphism

  • SubGraphs

Unit 2 Connectedness

  • Connected Graphs

  • Bipartite Graphs

Unit 3 Eulerian and Hamiltonian Graphs

  • Eulerian Graphs

  • Hamiltonian Graphs

  • Travelling Salesperson Problem

Unit 4 Graph Colourings

  • Vertex Colouring

  • Edge Colouring

  • Planar Graphs

  • Map Colouring Problem

Software Engineering (3 credits)

BLOCK 1 : Overview of Software Engineering

Unit 1 - Software Engineering and its models

  • Evolution of Software Engineering

  • Software development models

  • Capability maturity models

  • Software process technology

Unit 2: Principles of Software Requirements Analysis

  • Engineering the product

  • Modeling the system architecture

  • Software prototyping and specification

Unit 3 Software Design

  • Data design

  • Architectural design

  • Interface design

  • HCI design

  • Modular design

Unit 4 Software testing

  • Testing techniques

  • Testing for specialized environments

  • Debugging

BLOCK 2: Software Project Management

Unit 5: Software Project Planning

  • Different types of project metrics

  • Software project estimation

  • Models for estimation

  • Automated tools for estimation

Unit 6: Risk management and Project Scheduling

  • Identification of Software risks

  • Monitoring of risks

  • Management of risks

  • Formulating a task set for the project

  • Choosing the tasks of software engineering

  • Scheduling methods

  • The Software project plan

Unit 7 Software Quality Assurance

  • Formal technical reviews

  • Software reliability

  • Software quality standards

Unit 8 Software change management

  • Baselines

  • Version control

  • Change control

  • Auditing and reporting

BLOCK 3: Advanced Software Engineering

Unit 9: Web Software Engineering

  • Different layers

  • Issues of management of web based projects

  • Metrics

  • Analysis

  • Design

  • Testing

Unit 10: Mobile Software Engineering

  • Transition from design to coding of mobile applications

  • Elements of mobile applications

  • Approaches to the development of mobile applications

Unit 11: CASE tools

  • Analysis tools

  • Design tools

  • SQA tools

  • UI design tools

  • Software testing tools

  • Web engineering tools

Unit 12: Advanced Software Engineering

  • Clean room Software engineering

  • Component based Software engineering

  • Re-engineering

  • Reverse engineering

Accountancy and Financial Management (3 credits)

BLOCK 1: Accounting System

Unit 1: Accounting and its Functions

  • Scope of Accounting

  • Emerging Role of Accounting

  • Accounting as an Information System

  • Role and Activities of an Accountant

  • Accounting Personnel

  • Nature of Accounting Function

  • Organisation Chart for Accounting and

  • Finance

Unit 2: Accounting Concepts and Standards

  • Accounting Framework

  • Accounting Concepts

  • Accounting Standards

  • Changing Nature of Generally Accepted

  • Accounting Principles (GAAP)

  • Attempts towards Standardisation

  • Accounting Standards in India

Unit 3: Basic Accounting Process: Preparation of Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance

  • Accounting Equation

  • Classification of Accounts

  • Definitions of Journal and Ledger

  • Trial Balance • Objectives of Preparing Trial Balance

  • Accounting Cycle

BLOCK 2: Understanding and Analysis of Financial Statements

Unit 1: Preparation and Analysis of Final Accounts

  • Trading Account

  • Profit And Loss Account

  • Difference between Trading and Profit & Loss Account

  • Balance Sheet

  • Constructing a Balance Sheet

  • Classification of Balance Sheet’s Items

  • Adjustment Entries

Unit 2: Funds Flow and Cash Flow Statements

  • Statements of changes in Financial Positions

  • Fund Flow Statement

  • Analysing Changes in Working Capital

  • Sources of Funds

  • Uses (Applications) of Funds

  • Cash Flow Statement

  • Sources and Uses of Cash

Unit 3: Ratio Analysis

  • Categories of Ratios

BLOCK 3: Financial Management and Decisions

Unit 1: Introduction to Financial Management

  • Evolution of Financial Management

  • Significance of Financial Management

  • Principles of Financial Management

  • Economic Value Added

  • Agency Relationship

  • Changing Financial Landscape

Unit 2: Time Value of Money and Investment Decisions

  • Determining The Future Value

  • Annuity

Unit 3: Working Capital Decisions

  • Characteristics of Current Assets

  • Operating Cycle Concepts

  • Factors Influences Working Capital Environment

  • Estimating working capital Requirement

BLOCK 4: Working Capital Management

Unit 1: Cash and Treasury Management

  • Treasury Management

  • Facets of Cash Management

  • Methods of Cash Flow Budgeting

  • Investing Surplus Cash

  • Cash Collection and Disbursements

Unit 2: Receivables Management

  • Terms of Payment

  • Credit Policy Variables

  • Credit Evaluation

  • Monitoring Receivables

  • Factoring

Unit 3: Inventory Management

  • Reasons for Holding Inventory

  • Objectives of Inventory Management

  • Techniques of Inventory Control

  • Modern Techniques

  • Traditional Techniques

Lab (3 credits)

Based on three courses:

  • Object Oriented Analysis and Design

  • Software Engineering

  • Accountancy and Financial Management

Semester 4

Operating Systems (4 credits)

BLOCK 1 Introduction to Operating Systems, Process Management

Unit 1 Operating System-An Overview

  • What is an Operating System (OS)?

  • Goals of an Operating System

  • Generations of Operating Systems

  • Types of Operating Systems

  • Desirable Qualities of OS

  • Operating Systems : Some Examples

  • Functions of OS

Unit 2 Processes

  • Concept of Process

  • System Calls for Process Management

  • Process Scheduling

  • Scheduling Algorithms

  • Performance evaluation of the Scheduling Algorithms

Unit 3: Interprocess Communication and Synchronization

  • Interprocess Communication

  • Interprocess Synchronization • Semaphores

  • Classical problems in concurrent programming

  • Locks

  • Monitors and Conditional Variables

  • Summary

Unit 4: Deadlocks

  • Deadlocks

  • Characterization of a Deadlock

  • A Resource Allocation Graph

  • Dealing with Deadlock Situations

  • Deadlock detection and recovery

  • Deadlock Prevention

  • Deadlock Avoidance

BLOCK 2: Memory Management, File Management and Security

Unit 1: Memory Management

  • Overlays and Swapping

  • Logical and Physical Address Space

  • Single Process Monitor

  • Contiguous Memory Methods

  • Paging

  • Segmentation

Unit 2: Virtual Memory

  • Virtual Memory

  • Demand paging

  • Page Replacement policies

  • Thrashing

  • Demand Segmentation

  • Combined Systems

Unit 3: I/O and File Management

  • Organization of the I/O function

  • I/O Buffering

  • Disk Organization

  • Disk Scheduling

  • RAID

  • Disk Cache

  • Command language user’s view of File System

  • The System programmer’s view of the file System

  • The Operating systems’ view of file Management

Unit 4: Security and Protection

  • Security Threats

  • Security Policies and Mechanisms

  • Authentication

  • Protection in Computer Systems

  • Security Models

BLOCK 3: Advanced Topics and Case Studies

Unit 1: Multiprocessor Systems

  • Multiprocessor and Processor Coupling

  • Multiprocessor Interconnections

  • Types of Multiprocessor Operating System

  • Multiprocessor OS Functions and Requirements

  • Multiprocessor Synchronization

Unit 2: Distributed Operating Systems

  • History ofr Distributed Computing

  • Distributed Systems

  • Key features and Advantages of a Distributed System

  • Design Goals of Distributed Systems

  • Design Issues Involved in Distributed Systems

  • Distributed System Structure

  • Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems

  • Remote Procedure Calls

  • Other Middleware Technologies

Unit 3: Case Study - UNIX

Unit 4: Case Study – WINDOWS 2000

Data Communication and Networks (4 credits)

BLOCK 1: Introduction to Data Communication and Computer Network Concepts

Unit 1: Introduction to Computer Networks

  • What is computer Network

  • Network Goals / Motivation

  • Application of Networks

  • Point to Point or Switched Networks

  • Broadcast Networks

  • Network Protocols

  • Networking Model

  • Examples of Some Networks

Unit 2: Data Transmission

  • Transmission Terminology

  • Serial & Parallel Communication

  • Analog and Digital Data Transmission

  • Bandwidth & Date Rate Throughout

  • Transmission Impairments

  • Transmission Media and its Characteristics

  • Wireless Transmission

Unit 3: Data Encoding & Communication Technique

  • Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

  • Amplitude Modulation

  • Frequency and Phase Modulation

  • Asynchronous Transmission

  • Synchronous Transmission

Unit 4: Multiplexing and Switching

  • Frequency Division Multiplexing

  • Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing

  • Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

  • Modems

  • Switching

BLOCK 2: Media Access Control and Data Link Layer

Unit 1: Data Link Layer Fundamentals

  • Framing

  • Basics of Error Detection

  • Forward Error Correction

  • Cyclic Redundancy Check codes for Error Detection

  • Flow Control

Unit 2: Retransmission Strategies

  • Stop-&-Wait ARQ

  • Go-Back-NARQ

  • Selective Repeat ARQ

  • Pipelining

Unit 3: Contention-based Media Access Protocols

  • The advantages of Multiple-Access Sharing of Channel Resource

  • Pure ALOHA

  • Slotted ALOHA

  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)

  • CSMA with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

Unit 4: Polling-based Media Access Control Protocols

  • Token Ring

  • Token Bus

Unit 5: Media Access Control Protocols for High Speed Networks

  • FDDI-I and FDDI-H

  • DQDB with Bandwidth Balancing for Fair Access

  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

BLOCK 3: Network Layer

Unit 1: Introduction to Layer Functionality and Design Issues

  • Connection Oriented Vs Connectionless Services

  • Addressing

  • Concept of Congestion

  • Routing

  • Network Layer in ATM Protocols

  • Network Layer Design Issues

Unit 2: Routing Algorithms

  • Shortest Path Routing

  • Flooding

  • Distance Vector Routing

  • Link State Routing

  • Hierarchical Routing

  • Broadcast Routing

  • Multicast Routing

Unit 3: Congestion Control Algorithms

  • General Principles of Congestion Control

  • Congestion Prevention Policies

  • Congestion Control in Virtual Circuit Subnets

  • Load Shedding

  • Jitter Control

Unit 4: Internetworking & Network Layer in the Internet

  • Tunneling

  • Internetworking Routing

  • Fragmentation

  • IP Protocol

  • IP Addresses

  • Internet Control Protocols

  • OSPF – The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

  • BGP – The Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol

  • Internet Multicasting

  • Mobile IP

  • IPv6

BLOCK 4: Transport Layer and Application Layer Services

Unit 1: Transport Services and Mechanism

  • Type of Services

  • Quality of Services

  • Data Transfer

  • Connection Management Transport Control Mechanism

  • Addressing

  • Multiplexing

  • Flow Control and Buffering

  • Connection Establishment

  • Crash Recovery

Unit 2: TCP/UDP

  • Introduction to UDP

  • Remote procedure Call

  • The Real-Time Transport Protocol

  • Introduction to TCP

  • TCP Service Model

  • TCP Protocol

  • TCP Segment Header

  • TCP Connection Establishment

  • TCP Connection Release

  • Modeling TCP Connection Management

  • TCP Transmission Policy

  • TCP Congestion Control

  • TCP Timer Management

Unit 3: Network Security I

  • Cryptography

  • Symmetric Key Algorithms

  • Public Key Algorithms

Unit 4: Network Security II

  • Digital Signatures

  • Management of Public Keys

  • Communication Security

  • Web Security

Advanced Database Management Systems (4 credits)

BLOCK 1: Database Design and Implementation

Unit 1: Relational Database Design

  • Features of good database design

  • Enhanced ER tools

  • Converting EER diagram to tables

  • Functional dependency theory and normalization

  • Multi value dependency and 4NF

  • Join Dependency and 5NF

  • Inclusion Dependencies and Template Dependency


  • Modeling temporal data

Unit 2: Database implementation and Tools

  • Information system and organization

  • Data Design and Implementation in an Organization

  • Use of UML and its support for database design specifications

  • Representing specialization and generalization in UML Class diagram

  • UML based design tools

  • Automated database design tools.

Unit 3: Advanced SQL

  • Assertion and views

  • Cursors, triggers and stored procedures

  • Embedded SQL, dynamic SQL, SQLJ,

  • Advanced Features of SQL

  • Examples of above in Oracle

Unit 4: Database System Catalog

  • Catalogs for relational DBMS

  • System Catalog in Oracle

  • Data dictionary and data repository system

  • Catalog in Distributed database and object oriented database systems

  • Role of system catalog in administration

BLOCK 2: DBMS Advanced Features and Distributed Database

Unit 1: Query Processing and Evaluation

  • Measures of Query Cost

  • Evaluation of Expression

  • Transformation of Relational Expressions

  • Role of Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus in query optimisation

  • Estimating Statistics of Expression

  • Choice of Evaluation Plans

  • Views and query processing

  • Storage and query optimization

Unit 2: Transaction Management and Recovery

  • Advanced feature of Transactions

  • Enhanced Lock Based and timestamp based Protocols

  • Multiple Granularity

  • Multi-version Schemes

  • Deadlock Handling

  • Weak Levels of Consistency

  • Concurrency in Index Structures

  • Recovery and Atomicity

  • Recovery with Concurrent Transaction

  • Buffer Management

  • Advanced Recovery Techniques

  • Remote Backup Systems

  • Use of SQL in recovery

  • Examples of e-transactions

Unit 3: Database Security and Authorization

  • Levels of database security

  • Access control

  • Multilevel security

  • Statistical database security

  • Audit trails in the databases

  • Examples of e security

Unit 4: Distributed Databases

  • Centralised versus non centralized Databases

  • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous DDBMS and their comparison

  • Functions and Architecture

  • Distributed database design, query processing in DDBMS

  • Distributed concurrency management, deadlock management

  • Distributed Commit Protocols: 2 PC and 3 PC

  • Concepts of replication servers


Unit 1: Object Oriented Database

  • Limitations of Relational databases

  • The need of Object oriented databases

  • Complex Data Types

  • Structured Types and Inheritance in SQL

  • Table Inheritance

  • Data types (arrays, multi-set etc) and structure in Object oriented databases using SQL

  • Object-Identity and Reference Types in SQL

  • ODL and OQL

  • Implementing O-R Features

  • Persistent Programming Languages

  • Object-Oriented versus Object-Relational

  • An Example of Object oriented and object relational database implementation

Unit 2: Database and XML

  • Structured Semi structure and unstructured data

  • XML hierarchical tree data model

  • Documents DTD and XML schema

  • XML Documents & Database

  • XML query and transformation

  • Storage of XML data

  • XML database applications

Unit 3: Introduction to data warehousing

  • What is Data Warehousing, DSS and EIS?

  • Characteristics and functioning and architecture of Data Warehousing

  • Data marts

  • Data warehousing Life Cycle

  • Data modeling (Multidimensional Database) for data warehousing

  • Building of data warehouse • OLAP, MOLAP, ROLAP

  • Data warehouse and views

  • Future open issue for data warehouse

Unit 4: Introduction to Data Mining

  • What is data mining Technology and its relationship to Data warehousing

  • Association rules

  • Classification

  • Clustering

  • Approaches to data mining problems

  • Applications of Data mining problem

  • Commercial tools of data mining

  • Knowledge Discovery

BLOCK 4: Emerging Trends and Example DBMS Architectures

Unit 1: Emerging Database Models, Technologies and Applications I

  • Multimedia database

  • Geography databases, Gnome databases

  • Knowledge databases, deductive databases and semantic databases

  • Spatial database

  • Information visualization

Unit 2: Emerging Database Models, Technologies and Applications II

  • Mobile databases

  • Web databases (JDBC, ODBC)

  • Personal databases

  • Digital libraries

  • Data grids

  • Wireless networks and databases

Unit 3: PostgreSQL

  • Important features and brief architecture

  • User Interfaces

  • SQL Variations and Extensions

  • Transaction Management

  • Storage and Indexing

  • Query Processing and evaluation and optimization

Unit 4: Oracle

  • Features and basic architecture

  • Database Design and Querying Tools

  • SQL Variations and Extensions

  • Storage and Indexing

  • Query Processing, evaluation and Optimization

  • Concurrency Control and Recovery

  • Distributed Oracle

  • Database administration and other advanced tools

Mini Project


Semester 5

Advanced Internet Technologies

BLOCK 1: Servelet and JSP Programming

Unit 1: Introduction to Servelet

  • Servelet life Cycle

  • HTTP Servelet Class

  • Request Interface

  • Response Interface

  • Session Tracking (Cookies VRL)

  • Database Connectivity from Servelet

  • Interservelet Communication

  • Handling Servelet

  • Servelet Collaboration

Unit 2: Database Connection

  • JDBC Drivers


  • JDBC Techniques

  • Statements & its Types

  • Record Sets

  • Various Operations (Insertion, Deletion & updation)

Unit 3: JSP-I

  • Overview of JSP

  • Relation of Applets and Servelets with JSP

  • Scripting Elements

  • JSP Expressions

  • JSP Scriplets

  • JSP Declarations

  • Predefined Variables

  • Creating Custom JSP Tag Libraries Using Nested Tags

Unit 4: JSP-II

  • Structuring Generated Servelet in JSP Pages

  • Including Files and Applets in JSP Documents

  • Integrating Servelet and JSP


Unit 1: Introduction to Beans

  • Types of Beans

  • Session Beans

  • Counting Beans

  • Message Beans

  • Context and Naming Convention

Unit 2: Creating Beans

  • How to Create Beans

  • Create Web Application

  • Create Application Client

Unit 3: Deploying Beans

  • Deploying J2EE Applications

Unit 4: XML

  • Overview of XML

  • Overview of SGML

  • Differentiate Between SGML and XML

  • XML Development Goal

  • Structure of XML Document

  • Using DTD

  • XML Parser

  • Using XML Introduction

  • XML Entities

BLOCK 3: Web Security and Case Study

Unit 1: Web Security Concepts

  • HTTP Authentication

  • Compare and Contrast

  • Application Types (BASIC, DIGEST, FORM and Client CERT)

Unit 2: Security Implementation

  • Retrieving Authentication Information

  • Security in Servelet

  • Form Based Custom Authorisation

  • Retrieving SSL Authentication

Unit 3: Case Study

Principles of Management and Information Systems (2 credits)

BLOCK 1: Management Systems

Unit 1: Organisational Overview

  • Organisation Types

  • Organisational Structure

  • Organisational Characteristics

  • Organisation functions

  • Life cycle of organisation

  • Vertical and horizontal organisations

Unit 2:Management Functions and Business Processes

  • Overview of management Levels

  • Business Processes

  • Information systems requirements

  • Requirement analysis

  • Tools and methods for requirement analysis

Unit 3:Management Systems

  • Management Systems Types

  • Management Systems Requirements

  • Levels of management activities

  • Strategic level

  • Management level

  • Middle Management Level

Unit 4: Business values of Information System

  • Impact of Information Systems

  • Empirical studies

  • Cost Value Performance

  • Total cost of ownership

  • Culture for Information Systems

  • Decision management with Information Systems

BLOCK 2: Information Systems

Unit 5: Portfolio Management and IT applications

  • What is portfolio management

  • Portfolio management methods

  • Design and implementation of portfolio management

  • Risk Management

  • Disaster Management

  • Portfolio management issues and challenges

  • Tools and techniques

  • Emerging technologies

Unit 6: Enterprise Information Systems

  • Evolution of enterprise information Systems

  • Enterprise Resource Planning

  • Resource planning management

  • ERP Market

  • Supply Chain Management

  • Customer Relationship Management

  • E-CRM Systems

  • Emerging technologies

Unit 7: Intelligence Information Systems

  • Knowledge Management in organization

  • Creating, developing & sharing Knowledge

  • Artificial intelligence in business

  • Business Analytics

  • Business Intelligence

  • Role of Business Intelligence

  • Business Intelligence Tools

  • Business Intelligence reports

Unit 8: Social, Ethical and Legal Aspects

  • Society in information age

  • Moral dimensions and information age

  • Technology trends and ethical issues

  • Ethical principal and dilemma

  • Responsibility, accountability and liability

  • Information right and acts

Computer Graphics and Multimedia (4 credits)

BLOCK 1: Raster Graphics and Clipping

Unit 1: Introduction to Computer Graphics

  • What is Computer Graphics?

  • Application of Computer Graphics

  • Graphics Hardware

  • Input and Output Devices

  • Display Devices

  • Refreshing Display Devices

  • Plasma Panel and LCD panels

Unit 2: Graphics Primitives

  • Points and Lines

  • Line-drawing Algorithms

  • Circle-generating Algorithm

  • Polygon Filling Algorithm: Scan-Line

Unit 3: 2-D Viewing and Clipping

  • Point Clipping

  • Line Clipping

  • Polygon Clipping: Sutherland Hodgman Algorithm

  • Windowing Transformation

BLOCK 2: Transformations

Unit 4: 2-D and 3-D Transformations

  • Basic Transformations

  • Composite Transformations

  • Homogeneous Coordinate Systems

  • 3-D Transformations

Unit 5: Viewing Transformation

  • Projections

  • Perspective Projections

BLOCK 3: Modeling & Rendering

Unit 6: Curves and Surfaces

  • Polygon Representation Methods

  • Bezier Curves and Surfaces

  • Surface of Revolution

Unit 7: Visible – Surface Detection

  • Depth Buffer Method

  • Scan-Line Method

  • Area-Subdivision Method

Unit 8: Polygon Rendering and Ray Tracing Methods

  • Illumination Model

  • Shading

  • Ray Tracing

BLOCK 4: Multimedia and Animation

Unit 9: Computer Animation

  • Basic of Animation

  • Types of Animation

  • Simulating Accelerations

  • Computer Animation Tools

  • Applications

Unit 10: Multimedia Concepts and Applications

  • Concepts of Hypertext/Hypermedia

  • Multimedia Applications

  • Images

  • Audio and Video

  • Multimedia Tools

Lab (Advanced Internet Technologies and Computer Graphics) (2 credits)

Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Management (3 credits)

BLOCK 1: Problem Solving & Search Techniques

Unit 1: Introduction

  • Concepts & definitions of AI

  • Brief history of AI

  • AI and related fields

  • Problems • Techniques

  • Characteristics and underlying assumption of AI

  • Turing test Uninformed searches

  • Informed searches: generate and test

  • Hill-climbing

  • best-first search

Unit 2: State Space Representation & Search Techniques

  • A* algorithm

  • Problem reduction

  • Constraint satisfaction

Unit 3: Game Playing

  • Overview of One & Two Player Game

  • The Min-Max Search Procedure

  • Alpha-Beta Cutoffs

BLOCK 2: Knowledge Representation

Unit 1: Propositional & Predicate Logic

  • Syntax and semantics for prepositional logic

  • Syntax & semantics of First Order Predicate Logic (FOPL)

  • Properties of well-formed formula (wff)

  • Conversion to clausal form

  • Inference rules

  • The resolution principle

  • Non-deductive inference methods

Unit 2: Structured Knowledge Representations

  • Production Rules

  • Semantic Nets

  • Frames

  • Conceptual Dependencies and Scripts

Unit 3: AI Programming Languages

  • Introduction to LISP

  • Syntax and Numeric Functions

  • Basic List Manipulation Functions in LISP Functions

  • Predicates and Conditionals

  • Input, Output, and Local Variables

  • Iteration and Recursion

  • Property Lists and Arrays

  • PROLOG: List, Operators, Arithmetic

  • Cut & Fail

  • Backtracking

BLOCK 3: Handling Uncertainty

Unit 1: Handling Inconsistent and Incomplete Knowledge

  • Truth Maintenance Systems

  • Reasoning Techniques

  • Concept of Uncertainty

  • Bayes’ Theorem

  • Certainty Factors and Rule-Based Systems

  • Bayesian Networks

  • Dempster-Shafter Theory

Unit 2: Fuzzy Logic

  • Fuzzy Sets

  • Fuzzy Operators & Arithmetic

  • Membership Functions

  • Fuzzy Relations

BLOCK 4: Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Unit 1: Expert Systems

  • Introduction and Concept of Planning

  • Representing and Using Domain Knowledge

  • Expert System Shells

  • Knowledge Acquisition

Unit 2: Intelligent Agents

  • Agents and environments

  • Rationality and other performance measures

  • Nature of environments

  • Structure of agents

Numerical and Statistical Computing (3 credits)

BLOCK-1 Numerical Computing-I

Unit 1 Floating Point Arithmetic and Errors

  • Floating Point Representation

  • Sources of Errors

  • Propagated Errors

Unit 2 Solution of Non-Linear Equations

  • Bisection Method

  • Regula-Falsi Method

  • Secant Method

  • Newton-Raphson Method

  • Successive Iteration Method

Unit 3 Solution of Linear Algebraic Equations

-Direct Method

  • Gauss Elimination Method (without and with Pivoting)

  • LU-Decomposition Method

-Iterative Method

  • Jacobi Method

  • Gauss Seidel Method

  • Successive Over Relaxation Method

BLOCK-2 Numerical Computing-II

Unit 1 Interpolation

  • Differences – Forward and Backward Differences

  • Newton’s – Forward and Backward Difference Formulas

  • Lagrange’s Interpolation

Unit 2 Numerical Integration

  • Newton – Cotes Formulas

  • Composite Formulas

  • Gaussian Quadrature

Unit 3 Numerical Solution of ODE

  • Euler’s Method

  • Runge Kutta Method

BLOCK-3 Statistical Computing

Unit 1 Probability Distribution

  • Discrete Distribution

  • Binomial Distribution

  • Poisson Distribution

Continuous Distribution

  • Uniform Distribution

  • Exponential Distribution

  • Normal Distribution

  • Chi-square Distribution

Unit 2 Pseudo Random Number Generation

  • Uniform Distribution

Unit 3 Regression

  • Linear Regression Model

  • Non-Linear Regression

Parallel Computing (3 credits)

BLOCK –I Elements of Parallel Computing and Architecture

Unit 1 Introduction to Parallel Computing

  • Basic concepts about program/process/ thread concurrent Execution Parallel Execution, granularity, Potential of Parallelism

  • Need of Parallel Computation

  • Levels of parallel processing

  • Parallel processing Vs. Parallel computing

  • Dataflow Computing concept

  • Applications of parallel processing

Unit 2 Classification of Parallel Computers

  • Types of Classification

  • Flynn’s/ Handler classification


  • Loosely coupled / tightly coupled

  • Classification based grain size and Instruction level parallelism

Unit 3 Interconnection Network

  • Need of Interconnection Network

  • Concept Bandwidth Nod degree diameter bisection bandwidth, In degree and Out degree

  • Static and Dynamic Interconnection network

  • Omega, Parallel Shifter, Bens, permutation, hypercube, butterfly,

  • Shuffle exchange Network

Unit 4 Parallel Computer Architecture

  • Introduction to various computer architecture

  • Pipeline processing

  • Vector / Array processing

  • VLIW and Super scalar architecture

  • Associative architecture

BLOCK 2 Parallel Algorithm & Parallel Programming

Unit 1 Parallel Algorithm

  • Introduction to Parallel Algorithms

  • Analysis of Parallel Algorithms

  • Different models of computation

Unit –2 PRAM Algorithms

  • Message passage programming

  • Data Structures for parallel algorithms

Unit 3 Parallel Programming

  • Introduction to Parallel Programming

  • Types of parallel programming

BLOCK –3 Advanced Topics

Unit 1 Operating System for Parallel Computers

  • Basic issues of Operating Systems for Parallel Computers

  • Process Management

  • Resource Management

  • Memory management

  • I/O Management

  • Inter-Processor Communication

  • Vectorisation Compiler

Unit 2 Performance Evaluation

  • Introduction to performance evaluation

  • Metric of Parallel overhead

  • Law Speedup

  • Measurement Tools

Unit 3 Recent Trends for Parallel Computer

  • Development of last 3 years

  • Multi-compontent CPU

  • Apex architecture IA 64

  • Hyperthreading

Semester 6


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Questions related to IGNOU

Have a question related to IGNOU ?

A BCA degree from IGNOU is absolutely valid for appearing in the UPSC Civil Services Examination (CSE). IGNOU is a recognized university by the UGC (University Grants Commission) of India.

The BCA program itself may not directly cover all UPSC syllabus areas that are more humanities-oriented. However, it can provide valuable skills in:

  • Problem-solving
  • Analytical thinking
  • Logical reasoning
  • Information technology

  • IGNOU BCA as an Online Education Platform
    • Advantages:
      • Flexibility: IGNOU's distance learning format allows you to study at your own pace while managing other commitments.

      • Cost-effective: It's generally less expensive than regular universities.

      • Nationally recognized: The degree is valid throughout India.

    • Disadvantages:
      • Self-discipline required: Online learning demands strong self-motivation and time management.

      • Limited interaction: Less interaction with professors and classmates compared to a traditional setting.

      • Practical considerations: Fewer opportunities for hands-on labs or projects, crucial for some IT fields.

        I hope it helps!

Yes, pursuing a US CPA licensure and a certification in Data Science and ML could be a very good option for you

The combination of US CPA (accounting, finance) and Data Science/ML is unique and valuable. Businesses increasingly need professionals who understand both financial data and how to analyze it using advanced techniques.
This combination can open doors to exciting career opportunities in areas like financial data analysis, risk management, fraud detection, and financial modeling with a data-driven approach. Your back-office operations experience can provide valuable context for applying data analysis to real-world business problems.

Both US CPA licensure and Data Science/ML certification require significant dedication. Research the time commitment for each and plan accordingly. There will be costs associated with exams, study materials, and potentially data science/ML bootcamps. Budget accordingly. There are various data science/ML certifications available. Explore options that align with your career goals (e.g., Python for Data Science, Google Cloud Professional Data Scientist).

I hope it helps!


These are some of best universities where you can do your PhD:

  1. University of Delhi
  2. Jawaharlal Nehru University
  3. Banaras Hindu University
  4. Jamia Milia Islamia
  5. Tezpur University
  6. Aligarh Muslim University
  7. Assam University
  8. Visva Bharati University
  9. University of Hyderabad
  10. North-Eastern Hill University

Hope this information will help you. Thank you.

Yes, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) offers a PhD program in Political Science that can be pursued through Hindi medium.

One of IGNOU's objectives is to provide educational opportunities through Hindi and other Indian languages.
IGNOU offers PhD programs in various subjects, including Hindi, through Hindi medium. Political Science is likely one of them.

I hope it helps!

Yes, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) does offer a Ph.D. program in Political Science that can be pursued through Hindi medium. One of IGNOU's objectives is to make education accessible through Hindi and other Indian languages.

Since IGNOU offers Hindi as a medium for various programs, it's safe to assume the Ph.D. in Political Science is also available in Hindi.

I hope it helps!

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