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    IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - Detailed IGNOU Syllabus For MCA (1st to 6th Semester)

    Edited By Mohit Dhyani | Updated on Mar 14, 2022 11:27 AM IST | #IGNOU Delhi

    IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - The concerned authorities at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) are responsible for preparing syllabus of IGNOU MCA 2022 programme. Candidates already enrolled in the course should be aware of the course curriculum for IGNOU MCA 2022.

    It may be noted that IGNOU MCA 2022 syllabus is available at the official website for five semesters and the sixth semester is spared for project work only. Knowing the IGNOU MCA syllbus 2022 helps candidates to prepare well for the exams and also know the topics that are relevant. For a better understanding of topics to be covered under the syllabus of IGNOU MCA 2022, refer to the article below.

    IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - Detailed IGNOU Syllabus For MCA (1st to 6th Semester)
    IGNOU MCA Syllabus 2022 - Detailed IGNOU Syllabus For MCA (1st to 6th Semester)

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    IGNOU MCA Syllabus

    IGNOU MCA Subjects

    Blocks (As per IGNOU MCA syllabus)


    Semester 1

    Problem Solving and Programming (3 credits)

    Block 1- An Introduction to C

    Unit 1: Problem Solving

    • Problem - Solving Techniques

    • Design of Algorithms

    • Analysis of Algorithm Efficiency

    • Analysis of Algorithm Complexity

    • Flowcharts

    Unit 2: Basics of C

    • What is a Program and what is a Programming Language?

    • C Language

    • Structure of a C Program

    • Writing a C Program

    • Compiling a C Program

    • Link and Run the C Program

    • Diagrammatic Representation of Program Execution Process

    Unit 3: Variables and Constants

    • Character Set

    • Identifiers and Keywords

    • Data Types and Storage

    • Data Type Qualifiers

    • Variables

    • Declaring Variables

    • Initialising Variables

    • Constants

    Unit 4: Expressions and Operators

    • Assignment Statements

    • Arithmetic Operators

    • Relational Operators

    • Logical Operators

    • Comma and Conditional Operators

    • Type Cast Operator

    • Size of Operator

    • C Shorthand

    • Priority of Operators

    BLOCK 2: Control Statements, Arrays and Functions

    Unit 5: Decision and Loop Control Statements

    • Decision Control Statements

    • Loop Control Statements

    • The Goto Statement

    • The Break Statement

    • The Continue Statement

    Unit 6: Arrays

    • Array Declaration

    • Array Initialization

    • Subscript

    • Processing the Arrays

    • Multi-Dimensional Arrays

    Unit 7: Strings

    • Declaration and Initialization of Strings

    • Display of Strings Using Different Formatting Techniques

    • Array of Strings

    • Built-in String Functions and Applications

    • Other String Functions

    Unit 8: Functions

    • Definition of a Function

    • Declaration of a Function

    • Function Prototypes

    • The Return Statement

    • Types of Variables and Storage Classes

    • Types of Function Invoking

    • Call by Value

    • Recursion

    BLOCK 3: Structures, Pointers and File Handling

    Unit 9: Structures and Unions

    • Declaration of Structures

    • Accessing the Members of a Structure

    • Initializing Structures

    • Structures as Function Arguments

    • Structures and Arrays

    • Unions

    • Initializing a Union

    • Accessing the Members of a Union

    Unit 10: Pointers

    • Pointers and their Characteristics

    • Address and Indirection Operators

    • Pointer Type Declaration and Assignment

    • Pointer Arithmetic

    • Passing Pointers to Functions

    • Arrays and Pointers

    • Array of Pointers

    • Pointers and Strings

    Unit 11: The C Preprocessor

    • # define to Implement Constants

    • # define to Create Functional Macros

    • Reading from Other Files using # include

    • Conditional Selection of Code using #ifdef

    • Other Preprocessor Commands

    • Predefined Names Defined by Preprocessor

    • Macros vs Functions

    Unit 12: Files

    • File Handling in C Using File Pointers

    • Input and Output using file pointers

    • Sequential Vs Random Access Files

    • Positioning the File Pointer

    • The Unbufferred I/O - The UNIX like File Routines

    Computer Organisation and Assembly Language Programming (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Introduction to Digital Circuits

    Unit 1: The Basic Computer

    • The von Neumann Architecture

    • Instruction Execution: An Example

    • Instruction Cycle

    • Computers: Then and Now

    Unit 2: The Data Representation

    • Data Representation

    • Number Systems

    • Decimal Representation in Computers

    • Alphanumeric Representation

    • Data Representation For Computation

    Unit 3: Principles of Logic Circuits I

    • Logic Gates

    • Logic Circuits

    • Combinational Circuits

    • Design of Combinational Circuits

    • Examples of Logic Combinational Circuits

    Unit 4: Principles of Logic Circuits II

    • Sequential Circuits: The Definition

    • Flip Flops

    • Sequential Circuit Design

    • Examples of Sequential Circuits

    • Design of a Sample Counter

    BLOCK 2: Basic Computer Organisation

    Unit 1: The Memory System

    • The Memory Hierarchy

    • RAM, ROM, DRAM, Flash Memory

    • RAID and its Levels

    • The Concepts of High Speed Memories

    • Virtual Memory

    • The Memory System of Micro-Computer

    Unit 2: The Input/Output System

    • Input / Output Devices or External or Peripheral Devices

    • The Input Output Interface

    • The Device Controllers and its Structure

    • Device Drivers

    • Input Output Techniques

    • Input Output Processors

    • External Communication Interfaces

    Unit 3: Secondary Storage Techniques

    • Secondary Storage Systems

    • Hard Drives

    • Removable Drives

    • Removable Storage Options

    Unit 4: I/O Technology

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

    • Video Cards

    • Monitors

    • Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

    • Digital Camera

    • Sound Cards

    • Printers

    • Modems

    • Scanners

    • Power Supply

    BLOCK 3: The Central Processing Unit

    Unit 1: Instruction Set Architecture

    • Instruction Set Characteristics

    • Instruction Set Design Considerations

    • Addressing Schemes

    • Instruction Set and Format Design Issues

    • Example of Instruction Format

    Unit 2: Registers, Micro-Operations and Instruction Execution

    • Basic CPU Structure

    • Register Organization

    • General Registers in a Processor

    • Micro-operation Concepts

    • Instruction Execution and Micro-operations

    • Instruction Pipelining

    Unit 3: ALU Organisation

    • ALU Organisation

    Unit 4: The Control Unit

    • The Control Unit

    • The Hardwired Control

    • Wilkes Control

    • The Micro-Programmed Control

    • The Micro-Instructions

    • The Execution of Micro-Program

    Unit 5: Reduced Instruction Set Computer Architecture

    • Introduction to RISC

    • RISC Architecture

    • The Use of Large Register File

    • Comments on RISC

    • RISC Pipelining

    BLOCK 4: Assembly Language Programming

    Unit 1: Microprocessor Architecture

    • Microcomputer Architecture

    • Structure of 8086 CPU

    • Register Set of 8086

    • Instruction Set of 8086

    • Addressing Modes

    Unit 2: Introduction to Assembly Language Programming

    • The Need and Use of the Assembly Language

    • Assembly Program Execution

    • An Assembly Program and its Components

    • Input Output in Assembly Program

    • The Types of Assembly Programs

    • How to Write Good Assembly Programs

    Unit 3: Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)

    • Simple Assembly Programs

    • Programming With Loops and Comparisons

    • Programming for Arithmetic and String Operations

    Unit 4: Assembly Language Programming (Part – I)

    • Use of Arrays in Assembly

    • Modular Programming

    • Interfacing Assembly Language Routines to High Level Language

    • Programs

    • Interrupts

    • Device Drivers in Assembly

    Discrete Mathematics (2 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Elementary Logic

    Unit 1: Prepositional Calculus

    • Propositions

    • Logical Connectives

    • Logical Equivalence

    • Logical Quantifiers

    Unit 2: Methods of Proof

    • What is a Proof?

    • Different Methods of Proof

    • Principle of Induction

    Unit 3: Boolean Algebra and Circuits

    • Boolean Algebras

    • Logic Circuits

    • Boolean Functions

    BLOCK 2: Basic Combinatorics

    Unit 1: Sets, Relations and Functions

    • Introducing Sets

    • Operations on Sets

    • Relations

    • Functions

    Unit 2: Combinatorics – An Introduction

    • Multiplication and Addition Principles

    • Permutations

    • Combinations

    • Binomial Coefficients

    • Combinatorial Probability

    Unit 3: Some More Counting Principles

    • Pigeonhole Principle

    • Inclusion-Exclusion Principle

    • Applications of Inclusion – Exclusion

    Unit 4: Partitions and Distributions

    • Integer Partitions

    • Distributions

    Systems Analysis and Design (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Introduction to Systems Development

    Unit 1: Introduction to SAD

    • Fundamentals of System

    • Real Time Systems

    • Distributed Systems

    • Development of a successful System

    • Various Approaches for development of Information Systems

    Unit 2: Systems Analyst-A Profession

    • Why do Businesses need Systems Analysts?

    • Users

    • Analysts in various functional areas

    • Role of a Systems Analyst

    • Duties of a Systems Analyst

    • Qualifications of a Systems Analyst

    Unit 3: Process of System Development

    • Systems Development Life Cycle

    • Phases of SDLC

    • Product of SDLC Phases

    • Approaches to Development

    • Case Study

    Unit 4: Introduction to Documentation of Systems

    • Concepts and process of

    • Documentation

    • Types of Documentation

    • Different Standard for Documentation

    • Documentation and Quality of Software

    • Good Practices for Documentation

    BLOCK 2: Planning and Designing Systems

    Unit 5 : Process of System Planning

    • Fact finding Techniques

    • Issues involved in Feasibility Study

    • Cost Benefit Analysis

    • Preparing Schedule

    • Gathering Requirements of System

    Unit 6: Modular and Structured Design

    • Design Principles

    • Structure Charts

    • Modularity

    Unit 7: System Design and Modelling

    • Logical and Physical Design

    • Process Modeling

    • Data Modeling

    • Process Specification Tools

    • Data Dictionary

    BLOCK 3: More Design Issues and CASE Tools

    Unit 8: Forms and Reports Design

    • Forms

    • Reports

    • Differences between Forms and Reports

    • Process of Designing Forms and Reports

    • Deliverables and Outcomes

    • Design Specifications

    • Types of Information

    • General Formatting Guidelines

    • Guidelines for Displaying Contents

    • Criteria for Form Design

    • Criteria for Report Design

    Unit 9: Physical File Design and Database Design

    • Introduction to Database design

    • Design of Database Fields

    • Design of Physical Records

    • Design of Physical Files

    • Design of Database

    • Case Study

    Unit 10: CASE Tools for Systems Development

    • Use of CASE tools by organizations

    • Components of CASE

    • Visual and Emerging CASE tools

    BLOCK 4: Implementation and Security of Systems & MIS

    Unit 11: Implementation and Maintenance of Systems

    • Implementation of Systems

    • Maintenance of Systems

    Unit 12: Audit and Security of Computer Systems

    • Definition of Audit

    • Audit of Transactions on Computer

    • Computer Assisted Audit Techniques

    • Computer System and Security issue

    • Concurrent Audit Techniques

    Unit 13: Management Information Systems

    • Role of MIS in an organization

    • Different kinds of Information Systems

    Communication Skills (2 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Skills Needed at the Workplace - I

    Unit 1: The Process of Communication

    • Introduction: What is Communication?

    • The Process of Communication

    • Barriers to Communication

    • Different Types of Communication

    • Written vs. Oral Communication

    • Different Types of Face-to-Face Interactions

    • Characteristics and Conventions of Conversation

    • Conversational Problems of Second/Foreign Language Users

    • Difference between Conversation and Other Speech Events

    Unit 2: Telephone Techniques

    • Warm Up

    • Speaking and Listening: Commonly Used Phrases in Telephone Conversations

    • Reading: Conference Calls

    • Vocabulary

    • Writing and Listening: Leaving a Message

    • Grammar and Usage: The Perfect Tenses

    • Pronunciation: Contracted Forms

    Unit 3: Job Applications and Interviews

    • Warm up

    • Reading

    • Vocabulary: Apply for a Job

    • Curriculum Vitae

    • Language Focus: Some Useful Words

    • Study Skills: Preparing for an Interview

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Writing

    Unit 4: Group Discussions

    • Reading

    • Writing Skills

    • Listening: How to be Successful in a Group Discussion

    • Study Skills

    • Language Focus

    • Vocabulary

    • Speaking

    • Grammar: Connectives

    • Pronunciation

    Unit 5: Managing Organisational Structure

    • Warm Up: Ability to Influence and Lead

    • Reading: The Role of a Manager

    • Vocabulary: Leadership

    • Speaking and Listening

    • Language Focus: Degree of Probability

    • Grammar: Modals

    • Writing: Reports

    • Pronunciation

    Unit 6: Meetings

    • Reading: A Successful Meeting

    • Speaking: One to One Meetings

    • Language Focus: Opening, Middle and Close

    • Study Skills: Editing

    • Listening: Criteria for Successful Meetings

    • Vocabulary

    • Grammar: Reporting Verbs

    • Writing: Memos

    • Pronunciation: Stress According to Part of Speech

    Unit 7: Taking Notes and Preparing Minutes

    • Taking Notes

    • Preparing Minutes

    • Grammar: Using the Passive Voice

    Unit 8: Presentation Skills – I

    • Reading: Presentation Skills

    • Grammar: Verbs often Required in Presentations

    • Language Focus

    • Listening: Importance of Body Language in Presentations

    • Speaking: Preparing an Outline of a Presentation

    • Pronunciation

    Unit 9: Presentation Skills – II

    • Reading: Structure of Presentation

    • Study Skills: Visual Aids

    • Ending the Presentation

    • Language Focus: Talking about Increase and Decrease

    • Grammar: Prepositions

    • Listening: Podium Panic

    • Speaking

    • Pronunciation: Emphasizing the Important Words in Context

    Unit 10: Negotiation Skills

    • Language Focus: Idiomatic Expressions

    • Study Skills: Process of Negotiations

    • Grammar: Phrasal Verbs

    • Listening: Effective Negotiations

    • Speaking

    • Writing

    Internet Concepts and Web Design (2 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Scripting Languages

    Unit 1: The Internet

    • Classification of Networks

    • Networking Models

    • What is Packet Switching

    • Accessing the Internet

    • Internet Protocols

    • Internet Address

    • How does the Internet work

    • Intranet & Extranet

    • Internet Infrastructure

    • Protocols and Services on Internet

    Unit 2: Introduction to HTML

    • What is HTML

    • Basic Tags of HTML

    • Formatting of Text

    • Working with Images

    • META Tag

    Unit 3: Advanced HTML

    • Links

    • Lists

    • Tables

    • Frames

    • Forms

    • Some Special Tags

    Unit 4: Introduction to JavaScript

    • JavaScript Variables and Data Types

    • Statements and Operators

    • Control Structures

    • Object-Based Programming

    • Message box in Javascript

    • Javascript with HTML

    • Forms

    Unit 5: VB Script

    • What is VBScript

    • Adding VBScript Code to an HTML Page

    • Using Conditional Statements

    • Looping Through Code

    • VBScript Procedures

    • VBScript Coding Conventions

    • Dictionary Object in VBScript

    • Err Object

    Unit 6: Dreamweaver

    • Using Dreamweaver

    • Create a Site Home Page

    • Design a Page in Layout View

    • Insert Images

    • Insert Text

    • Work in Standard View

    • View the Site Files

    • Link your Documents

    BLOCK 2: Lab Manual

    Section 1: HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

    • Basic of HTML

    • How to Create HTML Document

    • Steps for Creating a Simple HTML Program

    Section 2: Advanced HTML

    • Advanced Topics of HTML

    Section 3: JavaScript

    • Script Basics

    • Incorporating JavaScript into a Web Page

    Section 4: VBScript

    • VBScript Basics

    • Incorporating VBScript into HTML Page

    Section 5: Dreamweaver

    • How to Work in Dreamweaver??

    • How to save your file?

    • Adding Layers to the Timeline and Giving Motion to the Layer

    • Inserting Scripts

    • Inserting External Media in the Web Page

    • Adding SSI(Server-side include to the Page)

    • Adding CSS Style to your Page

    • Adding XML Files to your Page

    • To Export a Dreamweaver Document as XML File, checking entries, working in frames, windows control, the Java script URL.

    Lab (C and Assembly Language Programming) (Lab Course) (2 credits)

    Section 1 C Programming Lab

    • Salient Features of C

    • C Programming Using Borland Compiler

    • Using C with UNIX

    • Running C Programs using MS Visual C++

    • Program Development Life Cycle

    • List of Lab Assignments – Session wise

    Section 2 Digital Logic Circuits

    • Logic Gates Circuit Simulation Program

    • Making a Logic Circuit Using Logic

    • A Revisit of Steps of Logic Circuit Design

    • Session-wise problems

    Section 3 Assembly Language Programming

    • Assemblers

    • Assembly Programming File

    • Session-wise List of Programs

    Semester 2

    Data and File structures (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Introduction to Algorithms and Data Structures

    Unit 1: Analysis of Algorithms

    • Mathematical Background

    • Process of Analysis

    • Calculation of Storage Complexity

    • Calculation of Run Time Complexity

    Unit 2 Arrays

    • Arrays and Pointers

    • Sparse Matrices

    • Polynomials

    • Representation of Arrays

    • Applications

    Unit 3: Lists

    • Abstract Data Type-List

    • Array Implementation of Lists

    • Linked Lists-Implementation

    • Doubly Linked Lists-Implementation

    • Circularly Linked Lists-Implementation

    • Applications

    BLOCK 2: Stacks, Queues and Trees

    Unit 4: Stacks

    • Abstract Data Type-Stack

    • Implementation of Stack

    • Algorithmic Implementation of Multiple Stacks

    • Applications

    Unit 5: Queues

    • Abstract Data Type-Queue

    • Implementation of Queue

    • Implementation of Multiple Queues

    • Implementation of Circular Queues

    • Implementation of DEQUEUE

    Unit 6: Trees

    • Abstract Data Type-Tree

    • Implementation of Tree

    • Tree Traversals

    • Binary Trees

    • Implementation of Binary Tree

    • Binary Tree Traversals

    • Applications

    BLOCK 3: Graph Algorithms and Searching Techniques

    Unit 7: Advanced Trees

    • Binary Search Trees

    • AVL Trees

    • B-Trees

    Unit 8: Graphs

    • Definitions

    • Shortest Path Algorithms

    • Minimum cost Spanning Trees

    • Breadth First Search

    • Depth First Search

    • Finding Strongly Connected Components

    Unit 9: Searching

    • Linear Search

    • Binary Search

    • Applications

    BLOCK 4: File Structures and Advanced Data Structures

    Unit 10 Sorting

    • Internal Sorting

    • Sorting on Several Keys

    Unit 11: Advanced Data Structures

    • Splay Trees

    • Red-Black trees

    • AA-Trees

    Unit 12: File Structures

    • Terminology

    • File Organisation

    • Sequential Files

    • Direct File Organisation

    • Indexed Sequential File Organisation

    Operating System Concepts and Networking Management (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Operating System Fundamentals Networking

    Unit 1: Graphical User Interface

    • What is Graphical User Interface

    • Evolution of Human and Machine Interaction

    • Common Graphical User Interfaces

    • Functionality of Graphical User Interface

    • GUI Design Consideration: psychological factors

    • GUI Design Consideration: standards

    • GUI Example

    Unit 2: Introduction to Operating System

    • What is an Operating System?

    • Evolution of Operating System

    • Operating System Structure

    • Classification of Advanced Operating System

    • Characteristics of Modern Operating System

    Unit 3: Introduction to Networking Concepts

    • Why Computer Networks

    • The Topologies

    • Characteristics of the OSI Layers

    • OSI Models and Communication between Systems

    • Interaction between OSI Model Layers

    • Protocols Types of Networks

    • Medium

    • Data Flow

    • Physical Connection

    • Transmission Media
      Connecting Devices

    Unit 4: Internetworking: Concept, Architecture and Protocols

    • History of internetworking

    • Packet Switching

    • Internetworking Concepts

    • Internet Addresses Object-Based Programming

    • Configuring IP Addresses

    • TCP/ IP

    • Additional TCP/ IP – Related Protocols

    • Application Layer Protocols

    • World Wide Web

    • Domain Name System

    • SNMP and UDP

    BLOCK 2: Linux Operating System

    Unit 1: Introduction to Linux Operating System

    • Features of Linux

    • Drawbacks of Linux

    • Components of Linux

    Unit 2: Linux Commands and Utilities

    • Entering the Machine

    • The File System

    Unit 3: Linux Utilities and Editor

    • Some Useful Commands

    • Permission Modes and Standard Files

    • Pipes, Filters and Redirection

    • Shell Scripts

    • Graphical User Interface

    • Editor

    Unit 4: User-to-User Communication

    • On-Line Communication

    • Off-Line Communication

    • Apache Server Settings

    • Network Server Settings

    Unit 5: Unix System Administration

    • System Administration

    • Installing Linux

    • Booting the System

    • Maintaining User Accounts

    • File Systems and Special Files

    • Backups and Restoration

    BLOCK 3: Windows 2000

    Unit 1: Windows 2000 Networking

    • Windows 2000 Operating System Architecture

    • Using the Mapped Drive

    • A Few Important Facts About Windows 2000 Usages

    Unit 2: Managing Windows 2000 Server

    • Using Windows 2000 and Client

    • Logging on to the Network

    • Browsing Network Resources

    • Accessing Network Resources Using My Network Places

    • Mapping a Folder

    Unit 3: Advanced Windows 2000 Networking

    • Windows 2000 Domains, Workgroups & Trusted Relationships

    • User Administration

    • Remote Access

    Unit 4: Windows XP Networking

    • Introduction to Windows XP Networking

    • Windows XP in File System

    • Sharing Network Resources in Windows XP

    • Enabling Offline File Features

    BLOCK 4: Security and Management

    Unit 1: Security Concepts

    • Goals of Computer Security

    • Security Problem and Requirements

    • Threat and Vulnerabilities

    • User Authentication

    • Security System and Facilities

    • Cryptography

    • Intrusion detection

    • Computer-Security Classifications

    Unit 2: Computer Security

    • Hardening Operating System and Application Code

    • Hardening File System Security

    • Hardening Local Security Policies

    • Hardening Services

    • Hardening Default Accounts

    • Hardening Network Activity

    • Fault Tolerant System

    • BACKUP and UPS

    Unit 3: Security and Management-I

    • Main Issues In Windows Security Management

    • Domain Controller

    • Windows Resources Management

    • Registry Management

    • Printer Management

    • Managing Windows 2000 Operating System

    • Active Directory

    • Windows 2000 DNS Management

    • Managing Group Policy

    Unit 4: Security and Management-II

    • User Authentication Management

    • User and Group Management

    • Resource Management

    • Windows 2000 Network – Security and Management

    • Encrypting File System Management

    Introduction to Database Management Systems (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1: The Database Management System Concepts

    Unit 1: The Basic Concepts

    • Need for a Database Management System

    • The Logical DBMS Architecture

    • Physical DBMS Architecture

    • Commercial Database Architecture

    • Data Models

    Unit 2: Relational And ER Models

    • The Relational Model

    • Relational Constraints

    • Relational Algebra

    • Entity Relationship (ER) Model

    • E-R Diagram

    • Conversion of E-R Diagram to Relational Database

    Unit 3: Database Integrity and Normalisation

    • Relational Database Integrity

    • Redundancy and Associated Problems

    • Single-Valued Dependencies

    • Single-Valued Normalisation

    • Desirable Properties of Decomposition

    • Rules of Data Normalisation

    Unit 4: File Organisation in DBMS

    • Physical Database Design Issues

    • Storage of Database on Hard Disks

    • File Organisation and Its Types

    • Types of Indexes

    • Index and Tree Structure

    • Multi-key File Organisation99

    • Importance of File Organisation in Databases

    BLOCK 2: Structured Query Language and Transaction Management

    Unit 1: The Structures Query Language

    • What is SQL?

    • Data Definition Language

    • Data Manipulation Language

    • Data Control

    • Database Objects: Views, Sequences, Indexes and Synonyms

    • Table Handling

    • Nested Queries

    Unit 2: Transactions and Concurrency Management

    • The Transactions

    • The Concurrent Transactions

    • The Locking Protocol

    • Deadlock and its Prevention

    • Optimistic Concurrency Control

    Unit 3: Database Recovery and Security

    • What is Recovery?

    • Recovery Techniques

    • Security & Integrity

    • Authorization

    Unit 4: Distributed and Client Server Databases

    • Need for Distributed Database Systems

    • Structure of Distributed Database

    • Advantages and Disadvantages of DDBMS

    • Design of Distributed Databases

    • Client Server Databases

    BLOCK 3: Application Development: Development of a Hospital Management System

    • Need to Develop the Hospital Management System (An HMS)

    • Creating a Database for HMS

    BLOCK 4: Study Centre Management System: A Case Study

    • Software Development Process: Analysis

    • System Designing

    • Issues relating to Software Development, Testing and Maintenance

    Object Oriented Technology and Java Programming (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Object Oriented Technology and Java

    Unit 1: Object Oriented Methodology-1

    • Paradigms of Programming Languages

    • Evolution of OO Methodology

    • Basic Concepts of OO Approach

    • Comparison of Object Oriented and Procedure Oriented Approaches

    • Benefits of OOPs

    • Introduction to Common OO Language

    • Applications of OOPs

    Unit 2: Object Oriented Methodology-2

    • Classes and Objects

    • Abstraction and Encapsulation

    • Inheritance

    • Method Overriding and Polymorphism

    Unit 3: Java Language Basics

    • Introduction To Java

    • Primitive Data Type And Variables

    • Java Operators

    Unit 4: Expressions, Statements and Arrays

    • Expressions

    • Statements

    • Control Statements

    • Selection Statements

    • Iterative Statements

    • Jump Statements

    • Arrays

    BLOCK 2: Object Oriented Concepts and Exceptions Handling

    Unit 1: Class and Objects

    • Class Fundamentals

    • Introducing Methods

    • Overloading constructors

    • Method Overloading

    • Garbage Collection

    • The Finalize ( ) Method

    Unit 2: Inheritance and Polymorphism

    • Inheritance Basics

    • Access Control

    • Multilevel Inheritance

    • Method Overriding

    • Abstract Classes

    • Polymorphism

    • Final Keyword

    Unit 3: Packages and Interfaces

    • Package

    • Accessibility of Packages

    BLOCK 3: Multithreading, I/O and String Handling

    Unit 1: Multithreaded Programming

    • Multithreading: An Introduction

    • The Main Thread

    • Java Thread Model

    • Thread Priorities

    • Synchronization in Java

    • Inter-thread Communication

    Unit 2 : I/O in Java

    • I/O Basics

    • Streams and Stream Classes

    • The Predefined Streams

    • Reading from, and Writing to, Console

    • Reading and Writing Files

    • The Transient and Volatile Modifiers

    • Using Instance of Native Methods

    Unit 3: Strings and Characters

    • Fundamentals of Characters and Strings

    • The String Class

    • String Operations

    • Data Conversion using Value Of () Methods

    • String Buffer Class and Methods

    Unit 4: Exploring Java I/O

    • Java I/O Classes and Interfaces

    • I/O Stream Classes

    • Using Package Members

    • Interfaces

    • Implementing Interfaces

    • Interface and Abstract Classes

    • Extends and Implements Together

    Unit 5: Exceptions Handling

    • Exception

    • Handling of Exception

    • Types of Exceptions

    • Throwing Exceptions

    • Writing Exception Subclasses

    • Text Streams

    • Stream Tokenizer

    • Serialization

    • Buffered Stream

    • Print Stream

    • Random Access File

    BLOCK 4: Applets Programming and Advance Java Concepts

    Unit 1: Applets

    • The Applet Class

    • Applet Architecture

    • An Applet Skeleton: Initialization and Termination

    • Handling Events

    • HTML Applet Tag

    Unit 2: Graphics and User Interfaces

    • Graphics Contexts and Graphics Objects

    • User Interface Components

    • Building User Interface with AWT

    • Swing-based GUI

    • Layouts and Layout Manager

    • Container

    Unit 3: Networking Features

    • Socket Overview

    • Reserved Parts and Proxy Servers

    • Internet Addressing: Domain

    • Naming Services (DNS)

    • JAVA and the net: URL

    • TCP/IP Sockets

    • Datagrams

    Unit 4: Advance Java

    • Java Database Connectivity

    • An Overview of RMI Applications

    • Java Servlets

    • Java Beans

    Lab (Data Structures using C, WINDOWS 2000, LINUX / UNIX, Java and MS-ACCESS, My SQL) (4 credits)

    SECTION 1: Data and File Structures Lab Manual

    • Arrays

    • Structures

    • Linked Lists

    • Stacks

    • Queues

    • Trees

    • Advanced Trees

    • Graphs

    • Searching

    • Sorting

    SECTION 2: Operating Systems and Networking Lab

    • Overview of Windows 2000

    • Unix and Linux

    • Advanced concepts of Local Area Network

    • Network administration of Windows 2000

    • LINUX administration

    • Unix Networking

    • Installation and Configuration of the networking services like TCP/IP, DNS, DHCP, FTP, SMTP


    • Introduction to MS-Access

    • Database Creation

    • Use of DBMS Tools/ Client-Server Mode

    • Forms and Procedures

    SECTION 4: Java Programming Lab

    • Programming with Java

    • PATH and CLASSPATH Setting

    • Example Programs

    • List of Lab Assignments

    Semester 3

    Design and Analysis of Algorithms (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1 Introduction to Algorithmics

    Unit 1: Elementary Algorithmics

    • Example of an Algorithm

    • Problems and Instances

    • Characteristics of an Algorithm

    • Problems, Available Tools & Algorithms

    • Building Blocks of Algorithms

    • Outline of Algorithms

    Unit 2: Some pre-requisites and Asymptotic Bounds

    • Some Useful Mathematical Functions & Notations

    • Mathematical Expectation

    • Principle of Mathematical Induction

    • Concept of Efficiency of an Algorithm

    • Well Known Asymptotic Functions & Notations

    Unit 3: Basics of Analysis

    • Analysis of Algorithm ─ Simple Example

    • Well Known Sorting Algorithms

    • Best-Case and Worst-Case Analyses

    • Analysis of Non-Recursive Control Structures

    • Recursive Constructs

    • Solving Recurrences

    • Average-Case & Amortized Analysis

    BLOCK 2 Design Techniques-I

    Unit 1: Divide-and-Conquer

    • General Issues in Divide-And Conquer

    • Integer Multiplication

    • Binary Search

    • Sorting

    • Finding the Median

    • Matrix Multiplication

    • Exponentiation

    Unit 2: Graphs Algorithms

    • Examples

    • Traversing Trees

    • Depth-First Search

    • Breadth-First Search

    • Best-First Search & Minimax Principle

    • Topological Sort

    BLOCK 3 Design Techniques - II

    Unit 1 Dynamic Programming

    • The Problem of Making Change

    • The Principle of Optimality

    • Chained Matrix Multiplication

    • Matrix Multiplication Using Dynamic Programming

    Unit 2 Greedy Algorithms

    • Some Examples

    • Formalization of Greedy Technique

    • Minimum Spanning Trees

    • Prim’s Algorithm

    • Kruskal’s Algorithm

    • Dijkstra’s Algorithm

    Unit 3 Models for Executing Algorithms –I: FA

    • Regular Expressions

    • Regular Languages

    • Finate Automata

    Unit 4 Models for Executing Algorithms –II PDFA & CFG

    • Formal Language & Grammer

    • Context Free Grammer (CFG)

    • Pushdown Automata (PDA)

    BLOCK 4 Complexity & Completeness

    Unit 1: Models for Executing Algorithms – III :™

    • Prelude to Formal Definition

    • Turing Machine: Formal Definition and Examples

    • Instantaneous Description and Transition Diagram

    • Some Formal Definitions

    • Observations

    • Turing Machine as a Computer of Functions

    Unit 2 Algorithmically Unsolvable Problems

    • Decidable And Undecidable Problems

    • The Halting Problem

    • Reduction to Another Undecidable Problem

    • Undecidable Problems for CFL

    • Other Undecidable Problems

    Unit 3 Complexity of Algorithms

    • Notations for the Growth Rates of Functions

    Object Oriented Analysis and Design (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Object Oriented Modeling and UML

    Unit 1: Introduction to Object Oriented Modelling

    • Object Oriented Modeling

    • Characteristics Object Oriented Modeling

    • An Object Model

    • Benefits of OO Modeling

    • Introduction to OOAD tools

    Unit 2: Object Oriented Analysis

    • Object Oriented Analysis

    • Problem Statement: an Example

    • Differences between Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis

    • Analysis Techniques

    • Adding Operations

    • Analysis Iteration

    Unit 3: Using UML

    • UML: Introduction

    • Object Model Notations:

    • Basic Concepts

    • Structural Diagrams

    • Behavioral Diagrams

    • Modeling with Objects

    BLOCK 2: Object Oriented Design

    Unit 4: System Design

    • System Design: An Object Oriented Approach

    • Breaking into Subsystems

    • Concurrency Identification

    • Management of data store

    • Controlling events between Objects

    • Handling Boundary Conditions

    Unit 5: Object Design

    • Object Design for Processing

    • Object Design Steps

    • Designing a Solution

    • Choosing Algorithms

    • Choosing Data Structures

    • Defining Classes and delegation of Responsibilities to Methods

    Unit 6: Advance Object Design

    • Control and its Implementation

    • Inheritance Adjustment

    • Association: Design

    • Object Representation

    • Design Optimization

    • Design Documentation

    BLOCK 3: Modeling

    Unit 7: Object Modeling

    • Advance Modeling Concepts

    • Multiple Inheritance

    • Generalization as an Extension

    • Generalization as a Restriction

    • Metadata

    • Constraints

    • An Object Model

    Unit 8: Dynamic Modeling

    • Events

    • State and State Diagram

    • Elements of State Diagrams

    • Examples of State Diagrams

    • Advance Concepts in Dynamic Modeling

    • Concurrency

    • A Dynamic model

    Unit 9: Functional Modeling

    • Functional Models

    • Data Flow Diagrams

    • Features of a DFD

    • Design flaws in DFD

    • A Functional model

    • Relationship between Object, Dynamic, and Functional Models

    Block 4: Implementation

    Unit 10: Implementation Strategies

    • Implementation

    • Unidirectional Implementation

    • Bi-directional Implementation

    • Implementing associations

    • Implementing Constraints

    • Implementing Statecharts

    • Persistency

    Unit 11: Object Mapping with Databases

    • Relational Database Schema for Object Modes

    • Object Classes to Database Tables

    • Mapping Associations to Tables

    • Mapping Generalizations to Tables

    • Interfacing to Database

    • Object Mapping with Databases: an Example

    Unit 12: Case Study

    • This unit will cover all the OOAD aspects Covered in previous 11(eleven) units of this course.

    Advanced Discrete Mathematics (2 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Recurrences

    Unit 1: Recurrence Relations

    • The Fibonacci Sequences, The Tower of Hanoi, Catalan Numbers

    • Related Definitions

    • Divide and Conquer Methods

    Unit 2 Generating Functions

    • Definitions and Constructions

    • Applications for Finding the Number of Integers Solutions of Linear Equations

    • Exponential Generating Functions

    • Solving Recurrence Relations using Generating Functions

    • Applying Generating Functions for Combinatorial Identities and Partitions

    Unit 3 Solving Recurrences

    • Linear Homogeneous Recurrences

    • Linear Non- Homogeneous Recurrences

    • Methods of Inspection, Telescoping Sums, Iteration, Substitution

    BLOCK 2: Graph Theory

    Unit 1: Basic Properties of Graphs

    • What Graphs are

    • Degree, Regularity and Isomorphism

    • SubGraphs

    Unit 2 Connectedness

    • Connected Graphs

    • Bipartite Graphs

    Unit 3 Eulerian and Hamiltonian Graphs

    • Eulerian Graphs

    • Hamiltonian Graphs

    • Travelling Salesperson Problem

    Unit 4 Graph Colourings

    • Vertex Colouring

    • Edge Colouring

    • Planar Graphs

    • Map Colouring Problem

    Software Engineering (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1 : Overview of Software Engineering

    Unit 1 - Software Engineering and its models

    • Evolution of Software Engineering

    • Software development models

    • Capability maturity models

    • Software process technology

    Unit 2: Principles of Software Requirements Analysis

    • Engineering the product

    • Modeling the system architecture

    • Software prototyping and specification

    Unit 3 Software Design

    • Data design

    • Architectural design

    • Interface design

    • HCI design

    • Modular design

    Unit 4 Software testing

    • Testing techniques

    • Testing for specialized environments

    • Debugging

    BLOCK 2: Software Project Management

    Unit 5: Software Project Planning

    • Different types of project metrics

    • Software project estimation

    • Models for estimation

    • Automated tools for estimation

    Unit 6: Risk management and Project Scheduling

    • Identification of Software risks

    • Monitoring of risks

    • Management of risks

    • Formulating a task set for the project

    • Choosing the tasks of software engineering

    • Scheduling methods

    • The Software project plan

    Unit 7 Software Quality Assurance

    • Formal technical reviews

    • Software reliability

    • Software quality standards

    Unit 8 Software change management

    • Baselines

    • Version control

    • Change control

    • Auditing and reporting

    BLOCK 3: Advanced Software Engineering

    Unit 9: Web Software Engineering

    • Different layers

    • Issues of management of web based projects

    • Metrics

    • Analysis

    • Design

    • Testing

    Unit 10: Mobile Software Engineering

    • Transition from design to coding of mobile applications

    • Elements of mobile applications

    • Approaches to the development of mobile applications

    Unit 11: CASE tools

    • Analysis tools

    • Design tools

    • SQA tools

    • UI design tools

    • Software testing tools

    • Web engineering tools

    Unit 12: Advanced Software Engineering

    • Clean room Software engineering

    • Component based Software engineering

    • Re-engineering

    • Reverse engineering

    Accountancy and Financial Management (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Accounting System

    Unit 1: Accounting and its Functions

    • Scope of Accounting

    • Emerging Role of Accounting

    • Accounting as an Information System

    • Role and Activities of an Accountant

    • Accounting Personnel

    • Nature of Accounting Function

    • Organisation Chart for Accounting and

    • Finance

    Unit 2: Accounting Concepts and Standards

    • Accounting Framework

    • Accounting Concepts

    • Accounting Standards

    • Changing Nature of Generally Accepted

    • Accounting Principles (GAAP)

    • Attempts towards Standardisation

    • Accounting Standards in India

    Unit 3: Basic Accounting Process: Preparation of Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance

    • Accounting Equation

    • Classification of Accounts

    • Definitions of Journal and Ledger

    • Trial Balance • Objectives of Preparing Trial Balance

    • Accounting Cycle

    BLOCK 2: Understanding and Analysis of Financial Statements

    Unit 1: Preparation and Analysis of Final Accounts

    • Trading Account

    • Profit And Loss Account

    • Difference between Trading and Profit & Loss Account

    • Balance Sheet

    • Constructing a Balance Sheet

    • Classification of Balance Sheet’s Items

    • Adjustment Entries

    Unit 2: Funds Flow and Cash Flow Statements

    • Statements of changes in Financial Positions

    • Fund Flow Statement

    • Analysing Changes in Working Capital

    • Sources of Funds

    • Uses (Applications) of Funds

    • Cash Flow Statement

    • Sources and Uses of Cash

    Unit 3: Ratio Analysis

    • Categories of Ratios

    BLOCK 3: Financial Management and Decisions

    Unit 1: Introduction to Financial Management

    • Evolution of Financial Management

    • Significance of Financial Management

    • Principles of Financial Management

    • Economic Value Added

    • Agency Relationship

    • Changing Financial Landscape

    Unit 2: Time Value of Money and Investment Decisions

    • Determining The Future Value

    • Annuity

    Unit 3: Working Capital Decisions

    • Characteristics of Current Assets

    • Operating Cycle Concepts

    • Factors Influences Working Capital Environment

    • Estimating working capital Requirement

    BLOCK 4: Working Capital Management

    Unit 1: Cash and Treasury Management

    • Treasury Management

    • Facets of Cash Management

    • Methods of Cash Flow Budgeting

    • Investing Surplus Cash

    • Cash Collection and Disbursements

    Unit 2: Receivables Management

    • Terms of Payment

    • Credit Policy Variables

    • Credit Evaluation

    • Monitoring Receivables

    • Factoring

    Unit 3: Inventory Management

    • Reasons for Holding Inventory

    • Objectives of Inventory Management

    • Techniques of Inventory Control

    • Modern Techniques

    • Traditional Techniques

    Lab (3 credits)

    Based on three courses:

    • Object Oriented Analysis and Design

    • Software Engineering

    • Accountancy and Financial Management

    Semester 4

    Operating Systems (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1 Introduction to Operating Systems, Process Management

    Unit 1 Operating System-An Overview

    • What is an Operating System (OS)?

    • Goals of an Operating System

    • Generations of Operating Systems

    • Types of Operating Systems

    • Desirable Qualities of OS

    • Operating Systems : Some Examples

    • Functions of OS

    Unit 2 Processes

    • Concept of Process

    • System Calls for Process Management

    • Process Scheduling

    • Scheduling Algorithms

    • Performance evaluation of the Scheduling Algorithms

    Unit 3: Interprocess Communication and Synchronization

    • Interprocess Communication

    • Interprocess Synchronization • Semaphores

    • Classical problems in concurrent programming

    • Locks

    • Monitors and Conditional Variables

    • Summary

    Unit 4: Deadlocks

    • Deadlocks

    • Characterization of a Deadlock

    • A Resource Allocation Graph

    • Dealing with Deadlock Situations

    • Deadlock detection and recovery

    • Deadlock Prevention

    • Deadlock Avoidance

    BLOCK 2: Memory Management, File Management and Security

    Unit 1: Memory Management

    • Overlays and Swapping

    • Logical and Physical Address Space

    • Single Process Monitor

    • Contiguous Memory Methods

    • Paging

    • Segmentation

    Unit 2: Virtual Memory

    • Virtual Memory

    • Demand paging

    • Page Replacement policies

    • Thrashing

    • Demand Segmentation

    • Combined Systems

    Unit 3: I/O and File Management

    • Organization of the I/O function

    • I/O Buffering

    • Disk Organization

    • Disk Scheduling

    • RAID

    • Disk Cache

    • Command language user’s view of File System

    • The System programmer’s view of the file System

    • The Operating systems’ view of file Management

    Unit 4: Security and Protection

    • Security Threats

    • Security Policies and Mechanisms

    • Authentication

    • Protection in Computer Systems

    • Security Models

    BLOCK 3: Advanced Topics and Case Studies

    Unit 1: Multiprocessor Systems

    • Multiprocessor and Processor Coupling

    • Multiprocessor Interconnections

    • Types of Multiprocessor Operating System

    • Multiprocessor OS Functions and Requirements

    • Multiprocessor Synchronization

    Unit 2: Distributed Operating Systems

    • History ofr Distributed Computing

    • Distributed Systems

    • Key features and Advantages of a Distributed System

    • Design Goals of Distributed Systems

    • Design Issues Involved in Distributed Systems

    • Distributed System Structure

    • Mutual Exclusion in Distributed Systems

    • Remote Procedure Calls

    • Other Middleware Technologies

    Unit 3: Case Study - UNIX

    Unit 4: Case Study – WINDOWS 2000

    Data Communication and Networks (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Introduction to Data Communication and Computer Network Concepts

    Unit 1: Introduction to Computer Networks

    • What is computer Network

    • Network Goals / Motivation

    • Application of Networks

    • Point to Point or Switched Networks

    • Broadcast Networks

    • Network Protocols

    • Networking Model

    • Examples of Some Networks

    Unit 2: Data Transmission

    • Transmission Terminology

    • Serial & Parallel Communication

    • Analog and Digital Data Transmission

    • Bandwidth & Date Rate Throughout

    • Transmission Impairments

    • Transmission Media and its Characteristics

    • Wireless Transmission

    Unit 3: Data Encoding & Communication Technique

    • Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

    • Amplitude Modulation

    • Frequency and Phase Modulation

    • Asynchronous Transmission

    • Synchronous Transmission

    Unit 4: Multiplexing and Switching

    • Frequency Division Multiplexing

    • Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing

    • Statistical Time Division Multiplexing

    • Modems

    • Switching

    BLOCK 2: Media Access Control and Data Link Layer

    Unit 1: Data Link Layer Fundamentals

    • Framing

    • Basics of Error Detection

    • Forward Error Correction

    • Cyclic Redundancy Check codes for Error Detection

    • Flow Control

    Unit 2: Retransmission Strategies

    • Stop-&-Wait ARQ

    • Go-Back-NARQ

    • Selective Repeat ARQ

    • Pipelining

    Unit 3: Contention-based Media Access Protocols

    • The advantages of Multiple-Access Sharing of Channel Resource

    • Pure ALOHA

    • Slotted ALOHA

    • Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)

    • CSMA with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

    Unit 4: Polling-based Media Access Control Protocols

    • Token Ring

    • Token Bus

    Unit 5: Media Access Control Protocols for High Speed Networks

    • FDDI-I and FDDI-H

    • DQDB with Bandwidth Balancing for Fair Access

    • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

    BLOCK 3: Network Layer

    Unit 1: Introduction to Layer Functionality and Design Issues

    • Connection Oriented Vs Connectionless Services

    • Addressing

    • Concept of Congestion

    • Routing

    • Network Layer in ATM Protocols

    • Network Layer Design Issues

    Unit 2: Routing Algorithms

    • Shortest Path Routing

    • Flooding

    • Distance Vector Routing

    • Link State Routing

    • Hierarchical Routing

    • Broadcast Routing

    • Multicast Routing

    Unit 3: Congestion Control Algorithms

    • General Principles of Congestion Control

    • Congestion Prevention Policies

    • Congestion Control in Virtual Circuit Subnets

    • Load Shedding

    • Jitter Control

    Unit 4: Internetworking & Network Layer in the Internet

    • Tunneling

    • Internetworking Routing

    • Fragmentation

    • IP Protocol

    • IP Addresses

    • Internet Control Protocols

    • OSPF – The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

    • BGP – The Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol

    • Internet Multicasting

    • Mobile IP

    • IPv6

    BLOCK 4: Transport Layer and Application Layer Services

    Unit 1: Transport Services and Mechanism

    • Type of Services

    • Quality of Services

    • Data Transfer

    • Connection Management Transport Control Mechanism

    • Addressing

    • Multiplexing

    • Flow Control and Buffering

    • Connection Establishment

    • Crash Recovery

    Unit 2: TCP/UDP

    • Introduction to UDP

    • Remote procedure Call

    • The Real-Time Transport Protocol

    • Introduction to TCP

    • TCP Service Model

    • TCP Protocol

    • TCP Segment Header

    • TCP Connection Establishment

    • TCP Connection Release

    • Modeling TCP Connection Management

    • TCP Transmission Policy

    • TCP Congestion Control

    • TCP Timer Management

    Unit 3: Network Security I

    • Cryptography

    • Symmetric Key Algorithms

    • Public Key Algorithms

    Unit 4: Network Security II

    • Digital Signatures

    • Management of Public Keys

    • Communication Security

    • Web Security

    Advanced Database Management Systems (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Database Design and Implementation

    Unit 1: Relational Database Design

    • Features of good database design

    • Enhanced ER tools

    • Converting EER diagram to tables

    • Functional dependency theory and normalization

    • Multi value dependency and 4NF

    • Join Dependency and 5NF

    • Inclusion Dependencies and Template Dependency


    • Modeling temporal data

    Unit 2: Database implementation and Tools

    • Information system and organization

    • Data Design and Implementation in an Organization

    • Use of UML and its support for database design specifications

    • Representing specialization and generalization in UML Class diagram

    • UML based design tools

    • Automated database design tools.

    Unit 3: Advanced SQL

    • Assertion and views

    • Cursors, triggers and stored procedures

    • Embedded SQL, dynamic SQL, SQLJ,

    • Advanced Features of SQL

    • Examples of above in Oracle

    Unit 4: Database System Catalog

    • Catalogs for relational DBMS

    • System Catalog in Oracle

    • Data dictionary and data repository system

    • Catalog in Distributed database and object oriented database systems

    • Role of system catalog in administration

    BLOCK 2: DBMS Advanced Features and Distributed Database

    Unit 1: Query Processing and Evaluation

    • Measures of Query Cost

    • Evaluation of Expression

    • Transformation of Relational Expressions

    • Role of Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus in query optimisation

    • Estimating Statistics of Expression

    • Choice of Evaluation Plans

    • Views and query processing

    • Storage and query optimization

    Unit 2: Transaction Management and Recovery

    • Advanced feature of Transactions

    • Enhanced Lock Based and timestamp based Protocols

    • Multiple Granularity

    • Multi-version Schemes

    • Deadlock Handling

    • Weak Levels of Consistency

    • Concurrency in Index Structures

    • Recovery and Atomicity

    • Recovery with Concurrent Transaction

    • Buffer Management

    • Advanced Recovery Techniques

    • Remote Backup Systems

    • Use of SQL in recovery

    • Examples of e-transactions

    Unit 3: Database Security and Authorization

    • Levels of database security

    • Access control

    • Multilevel security

    • Statistical database security

    • Audit trails in the databases

    • Examples of e security

    Unit 4: Distributed Databases

    • Centralised versus non centralized Databases

    • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous DDBMS and their comparison

    • Functions and Architecture

    • Distributed database design, query processing in DDBMS

    • Distributed concurrency management, deadlock management

    • Distributed Commit Protocols: 2 PC and 3 PC

    • Concepts of replication servers


    Unit 1: Object Oriented Database

    • Limitations of Relational databases

    • The need of Object oriented databases

    • Complex Data Types

    • Structured Types and Inheritance in SQL

    • Table Inheritance

    • Data types (arrays, multi-set etc) and structure in Object oriented databases using SQL

    • Object-Identity and Reference Types in SQL

    • ODL and OQL

    • Implementing O-R Features

    • Persistent Programming Languages

    • Object-Oriented versus Object-Relational

    • An Example of Object oriented and object relational database implementation

    Unit 2: Database and XML

    • Structured Semi structure and unstructured data

    • XML hierarchical tree data model

    • Documents DTD and XML schema

    • XML Documents & Database

    • XML query and transformation

    • Storage of XML data

    • XML database applications

    Unit 3: Introduction to data warehousing

    • What is Data Warehousing, DSS and EIS?

    • Characteristics and functioning and architecture of Data Warehousing

    • Data marts

    • Data warehousing Life Cycle

    • Data modeling (Multidimensional Database) for data warehousing

    • Building of data warehouse • OLAP, MOLAP, ROLAP

    • Data warehouse and views

    • Future open issue for data warehouse

    Unit 4: Introduction to Data Mining

    • What is data mining Technology and its relationship to Data warehousing

    • Association rules

    • Classification

    • Clustering

    • Approaches to data mining problems

    • Applications of Data mining problem

    • Commercial tools of data mining

    • Knowledge Discovery

    BLOCK 4: Emerging Trends and Example DBMS Architectures

    Unit 1: Emerging Database Models, Technologies and Applications I

    • Multimedia database

    • Geography databases, Gnome databases

    • Knowledge databases, deductive databases and semantic databases

    • Spatial database

    • Information visualization

    Unit 2: Emerging Database Models, Technologies and Applications II

    • Mobile databases

    • Web databases (JDBC, ODBC)

    • Personal databases

    • Digital libraries

    • Data grids

    • Wireless networks and databases

    Unit 3: PostgreSQL

    • Important features and brief architecture

    • User Interfaces

    • SQL Variations and Extensions

    • Transaction Management

    • Storage and Indexing

    • Query Processing and evaluation and optimization

    Unit 4: Oracle

    • Features and basic architecture

    • Database Design and Querying Tools

    • SQL Variations and Extensions

    • Storage and Indexing

    • Query Processing, evaluation and Optimization

    • Concurrency Control and Recovery

    • Distributed Oracle

    • Database administration and other advanced tools

    Mini Project

    Lab (UNIX & DBMS)

    Semester 5

    Advanced Internet Technologies

    BLOCK 1: Servelet and JSP Programming

    Unit 1: Introduction to Servelet

    • Servelet life Cycle

    • HTTP Servelet Class

    • Request Interface

    • Response Interface

    • Session Tracking (Cookies VRL)

    • Database Connectivity from Servelet

    • Interservelet Communication

    • Handling Servelet

    • Servelet Collaboration

    Unit 2: Database Connection

    • JDBC Drivers

    • JDBC APIs

    • JDBC Techniques

    • Statements & its Types

    • Record Sets

    • Various Operations (Insertion, Deletion & updation)

    Unit 3: JSP-I

    • Overview of JSP

    • Relation of Applets and Servelets with JSP

    • Scripting Elements

    • JSP Expressions

    • JSP Scriplets

    • JSP Declarations

    • Predefined Variables

    • Creating Custom JSP Tag Libraries Using Nested Tags

    Unit 4: JSP-II

    • Structuring Generated Servelet in JSP Pages

    • Including Files and Applets in JSP Documents

    • Integrating Servelet and JSP

    BLOCK 2: EJB and XML

    Unit 1: Introduction to Beans

    • Types of Beans

    • Session Beans

    • Counting Beans

    • Message Beans

    • Context and Naming Convention

    Unit 2: Creating Beans

    • How to Create Beans

    • Create Web Application

    • Create Application Client

    Unit 3: Deploying Beans

    • Deploying J2EE Applications

    Unit 4: XML

    • Overview of XML

    • Overview of SGML

    • Differentiate Between SGML and XML

    • XML Development Goal

    • Structure of XML Document

    • Using DTD

    • XML Parser

    • Using XML Introduction

    • XML Entities

    BLOCK 3: Web Security and Case Study

    Unit 1: Web Security Concepts

    • HTTP Authentication

    • Compare and Contrast

    • Application Types (BASIC, DIGEST, FORM and Client CERT)

    Unit 2: Security Implementation

    • Retrieving Authentication Information

    • Security in Servelet

    • Form Based Custom Authorisation

    • Retrieving SSL Authentication

    Unit 3: Case Study

    Principles of Management and Information Systems (2 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Management Systems

    Unit 1: Organisational Overview

    • Organisation Types

    • Organisational Structure

    • Organisational Characteristics

    • Organisation functions

    • Life cycle of organisation

    • Vertical and horizontal organisations

    Unit 2:Management Functions and Business Processes

    • Overview of management Levels

    • Business Processes

    • Information systems requirements

    • Requirement analysis

    • Tools and methods for requirement analysis

    Unit 3:Management Systems

    • Management Systems Types

    • Management Systems Requirements

    • Levels of management activities

    • Strategic level

    • Management level

    • Middle Management Level

    Unit 4: Business values of Information System

    • Impact of Information Systems

    • Empirical studies

    • Cost Value Performance

    • Total cost of ownership

    • Culture for Information Systems

    • Decision management with Information Systems

    BLOCK 2: Information Systems

    Unit 5: Portfolio Management and IT applications

    • What is portfolio management

    • Portfolio management methods

    • Design and implementation of portfolio management

    • Risk Management

    • Disaster Management

    • Portfolio management issues and challenges

    • Tools and techniques

    • Emerging technologies

    Unit 6: Enterprise Information Systems

    • Evolution of enterprise information Systems

    • Enterprise Resource Planning

    • Resource planning management

    • ERP Market

    • Supply Chain Management

    • Customer Relationship Management

    • E-CRM Systems

    • Emerging technologies

    Unit 7: Intelligence Information Systems

    • Knowledge Management in organization

    • Creating, developing & sharing Knowledge

    • Artificial intelligence in business

    • Business Analytics

    • Business Intelligence

    • Role of Business Intelligence

    • Business Intelligence Tools

    • Business Intelligence reports

    Unit 8: Social, Ethical and Legal Aspects

    • Society in information age

    • Moral dimensions and information age

    • Technology trends and ethical issues

    • Ethical principal and dilemma

    • Responsibility, accountability and liability

    • Information right and acts

    Computer Graphics and Multimedia (4 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Raster Graphics and Clipping

    Unit 1: Introduction to Computer Graphics

    • What is Computer Graphics?

    • Application of Computer Graphics

    • Graphics Hardware

    • Input and Output Devices

    • Display Devices

    • Refreshing Display Devices

    • Plasma Panel and LCD panels

    Unit 2: Graphics Primitives

    • Points and Lines

    • Line-drawing Algorithms

    • Circle-generating Algorithm

    • Polygon Filling Algorithm: Scan-Line

    Unit 3: 2-D Viewing and Clipping

    • Point Clipping

    • Line Clipping

    • Polygon Clipping: Sutherland Hodgman Algorithm

    • Windowing Transformation

    BLOCK 2: Transformations

    Unit 4: 2-D and 3-D Transformations

    • Basic Transformations

    • Composite Transformations

    • Homogeneous Coordinate Systems

    • 3-D Transformations

    Unit 5: Viewing Transformation

    • Projections

    • Perspective Projections

    BLOCK 3: Modeling & Rendering

    Unit 6: Curves and Surfaces

    • Polygon Representation Methods

    • Bezier Curves and Surfaces

    • Surface of Revolution

    Unit 7: Visible – Surface Detection

    • Depth Buffer Method

    • Scan-Line Method

    • Area-Subdivision Method

    Unit 8: Polygon Rendering and Ray Tracing Methods

    • Illumination Model

    • Shading

    • Ray Tracing

    BLOCK 4: Multimedia and Animation

    Unit 9: Computer Animation

    • Basic of Animation

    • Types of Animation

    • Simulating Accelerations

    • Computer Animation Tools

    • Applications

    Unit 10: Multimedia Concepts and Applications

    • Concepts of Hypertext/Hypermedia

    • Multimedia Applications

    • Images

    • Audio and Video

    • Multimedia Tools

    Lab (Advanced Internet Technologies and Computer Graphics) (2 credits)

    Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Management (3 credits)

    BLOCK 1: Problem Solving & Search Techniques

    Unit 1: Introduction

    • Concepts & definitions of AI

    • Brief history of AI

    • AI and related fields

    • Problems • Techniques

    • Characteristics and underlying assumption of AI

    • Turing test Uninformed searches

    • Informed searches: generate and test

    • Hill-climbing

    • best-first search

    Unit 2: State Space Representation & Search Techniques

    • A* algorithm

    • Problem reduction

    • Constraint satisfaction

    Unit 3: Game Playing

    • Overview of One & Two Player Game

    • The Min-Max Search Procedure

    • Alpha-Beta Cutoffs

    BLOCK 2: Knowledge Representation

    Unit 1: Propositional & Predicate Logic

    • Syntax and semantics for prepositional logic

    • Syntax & semantics of First Order Predicate Logic (FOPL)

    • Properties of well-formed formula (wff)

    • Conversion to clausal form

    • Inference rules

    • The resolution principle

    • Non-deductive inference methods

    Unit 2: Structured Knowledge Representations

    • Production Rules

    • Semantic Nets

    • Frames

    • Conceptual Dependencies and Scripts

    Unit 3: AI Programming Languages

    • Introduction to LISP

    • Syntax and Numeric Functions

    • Basic List Manipulation Functions in LISP Functions

    • Predicates and Conditionals

    • Input, Output, and Local Variables

    • Iteration and Recursion

    • Property Lists and Arrays

    • PROLOG: List, Operators, Arithmetic

    • Cut & Fail

    • Backtracking

    BLOCK 3: Handling Uncertainty

    Unit 1: Handling Inconsistent and Incomplete Knowledge

    • Truth Maintenance Systems

    • Reasoning Techniques

    • Concept of Uncertainty

    • Bayes’ Theorem

    • Certainty Factors and Rule-Based Systems

    • Bayesian Networks

    • Dempster-Shafter Theory

    Unit 2: Fuzzy Logic

    • Fuzzy Sets

    • Fuzzy Operators & Arithmetic

    • Membership Functions

    • Fuzzy Relations

    BLOCK 4: Applications of Artificial Intelligence

    Unit 1: Expert Systems

    • Introduction and Concept of Planning

    • Representing and Using Domain Knowledge

    • Expert System Shells

    • Knowledge Acquisition

    Unit 2: Intelligent Agents

    • Agents and environments

    • Rationality and other performance measures

    • Nature of environments

    • Structure of agents

    Numerical and Statistical Computing (3 credits)

    BLOCK-1 Numerical Computing-I

    Unit 1 Floating Point Arithmetic and Errors

    • Floating Point Representation

    • Sources of Errors

    • Propagated Errors

    Unit 2 Solution of Non-Linear Equations

    • Bisection Method

    • Regula-Falsi Method

    • Secant Method

    • Newton-Raphson Method

    • Successive Iteration Method

    Unit 3 Solution of Linear Algebraic Equations

    -Direct Method

    • Gauss Elimination Method (without and with Pivoting)

    • LU-Decomposition Method

    -Iterative Method

    • Jacobi Method

    • Gauss Seidel Method

    • Successive Over Relaxation Method

    BLOCK-2 Numerical Computing-II

    Unit 1 Interpolation

    • Differences – Forward and Backward Differences

    • Newton’s – Forward and Backward Difference Formulas

    • Lagrange’s Interpolation

    Unit 2 Numerical Integration

    • Newton – Cotes Formulas

    • Composite Formulas

    • Gaussian Quadrature

    Unit 3 Numerical Solution of ODE

    • Euler’s Method

    • Runge Kutta Method

    BLOCK-3 Statistical Computing

    Unit 1 Probability Distribution

    • Discrete Distribution

    • Binomial Distribution

    • Poisson Distribution

    Continuous Distribution

    • Uniform Distribution

    • Exponential Distribution

    • Normal Distribution

    • Chi-square Distribution

    Unit 2 Pseudo Random Number Generation

    • Uniform Distribution

    Unit 3 Regression

    • Linear Regression Model

    • Non-Linear Regression

    Parallel Computing (3 credits)

    BLOCK –I Elements of Parallel Computing and Architecture

    Unit 1 Introduction to Parallel Computing

    • Basic concepts about program/process/ thread concurrent Execution Parallel Execution, granularity, Potential of Parallelism

    • Need of Parallel Computation

    • Levels of parallel processing

    • Parallel processing Vs. Parallel computing

    • Dataflow Computing concept

    • Applications of parallel processing

    Unit 2 Classification of Parallel Computers

    • Types of Classification

    • Flynn’s/ Handler classification

    • UMA / NUMA /COMA

    • Loosely coupled / tightly coupled

    • Classification based grain size and Instruction level parallelism

    Unit 3 Interconnection Network

    • Need of Interconnection Network

    • Concept Bandwidth Nod degree diameter bisection bandwidth, In degree and Out degree

    • Static and Dynamic Interconnection network

    • Omega, Parallel Shifter, Bens, permutation, hypercube, butterfly,

    • Shuffle exchange Network

    Unit 4 Parallel Computer Architecture

    • Introduction to various computer architecture

    • Pipeline processing

    • Vector / Array processing

    • VLIW and Super scalar architecture

    • Associative architecture

    BLOCK 2 Parallel Algorithm & Parallel Programming

    Unit 1 Parallel Algorithm

    • Introduction to Parallel Algorithms

    • Analysis of Parallel Algorithms

    • Different models of computation

    Unit –2 PRAM Algorithms

    • Message passage programming

    • Data Structures for parallel algorithms

    Unit 3 Parallel Programming

    • Introduction to Parallel Programming

    • Types of parallel programming

    BLOCK –3 Advanced Topics

    Unit 1 Operating System for Parallel Computers

    • Basic issues of Operating Systems for Parallel Computers

    • Process Management

    • Resource Management

    • Memory management

    • I/O Management

    • Inter-Processor Communication

    • Vectorisation Compiler

    Unit 2 Performance Evaluation

    • Introduction to performance evaluation

    • Metric of Parallel overhead

    • Law Speedup

    • Measurement Tools

    Unit 3 Recent Trends for Parallel Computer

    • Development of last 3 years

    • Multi-compontent CPU

    • Apex architecture IA 64

    • Hyperthreading

    Semester 6


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    Questions related to IGNOU Delhi

    Have a question related to IGNOU Delhi ?


    Yes, you can pursue two degree programs at the same time, one through regular mode and another through distance mode, even two courses in regular mode is also permitted as long as any student can manage the criteria of attendence as this becomes essential factor in regular mode of study, hence to answer your question you can pursue two degree courses at the same, one through distance mode and another through regular mode.


    According to the information that you have provided, you are pursuing your diploma in nutrition and health education from IGNOU, and the institute is of national importance.

    Although take a look at the eligibility criteria for MSc. Nutrition and Dietetics from Symbiosis Institute of Health Sciences -

    Graduate in Life Sciences / Home Sciences / Health Sciences and any other Biological sciences from any recognized University/ Institution of National Importance with a minimum of 50% marks or equivalent grade.

    Hi candidate
    The eligibility criteria for pursuing Postgraduate diploma in Psychological medicine is as follows.
    • Candidate must have completed MBBS degree or provisional MBBS pass certificate recognized as per the provisions of the NMC Act, 2019 and the repealed Indian Medical Council Act 1956.
    • Candidate must possess a permanent or provisional registration certificate of MBBS qualification issued by the NMC/ the erstwhile Medical Council of India or State Medical Council.
    • Candidate must have completed one year of internship or are likely to complete the internship on a stipulated time which varies according to the date of the exam.
    • In order to become eligible for counseling, candidate must have obtained minimum 50 percentile for General category (40 percentile for SC/ST/OBC (including PWD of SC/ST/OBC) and 45 percentile for UR PWD) in NEET PG.

    Since you are not an MBBS degree holder, you are NOT eligible for this diploma course.

    Hope this helps you
    All the best :)

    Hello Aspirant,

    Your sister can easily pursue her distance course from IGNOU while she is preparing for NEET for MBBS.

    She can even continue if she starts her MBBS course from any college as per the new UGC guidelines. UGC has approved a proposal to allow students to pursue two degrees at the same time.

    One of them has to be in the regular mode and the other either in distance learning or online. A student can pursue two degrees in different streams as well as from different institutions.

    These guidelines may take time in rolling out in different institutes but is surely possible.

    Hope this helps!


    As per your mentioned query yes, you cando that. You can persue both MA and BEd at the same time but according to University Grant Commission ( U. G. C.) you have to persue one degree as a regular student and another degree through open/ distance learning.

    So, you can persue BEd from any college as a regular student and MA from open university like IGNOU,VMOU, BRAOU, etc. Or you can do both degree from same University if your University support open learning.

    Hope this will help you.

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    In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism, Advertising, Marketing Management. Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

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    A career as a gemologist is as magnificent and sparkling as gemstones. A gemologist is a professional who has knowledge and understanding of gemology and he or she applies the same knowledge in his everyday work responsibilities. He or she grades gemstones using various equipment and determines its worth. His or her other work responsibilities involve settling gemstones in jewellery, polishing and examining it. 

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    Production Manager

    Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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    Welding Engineer

    Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

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    QA Manager

    Quality Assurance Manager Job Description: A QA Manager is an administrative professional responsible for overseeing the activity of the QA department and staff. It involves developing, implementing and maintaining a system that is qualified and reliable for testing to meet specifications of products of organisations as well as development processes. 

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    Reliability Engineer

    Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment. 

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    Safety Manager

    A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

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    Corporate Executive

    Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

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    Computer Programmer

    Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover includes wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech-enthusiast. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word processing applications and browsers.

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    Product Manager

    A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

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    ITSM Manager

    ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

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    Web Analyst

    Web Analyst Job Description: A Web Analyst utilises his or her analytics skills to pull data collections from varying websites concerning visitors’ behaviour and performance of web servers. He or she oversees link management, SEO statistics and keyword density. 

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    Team Lead

    A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

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    Project Consultant

    A Project Consultant is responsible for contributing operational, strategic or technical expertise to projects. He or she provides consultation to clients and determines project parameters, developing project plans concerning business objectives. Project Consultants provide support in assigning tasks and resources. 

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    Big Data Analytics Engineer

    Big Data Analytics Engineer Job Description: A Big Data Analytics Engineer is responsible for collecting data from various sources. He or she has to sort the organised and chaotic data to find out patterns. The role of Big Data Engineer involves converting messy information into useful data that is clean, accurate and actionable. 

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    Integration Architect

    Career as  Integration Architect is responsible for integrating various systems and technologies into the whole. He or she creates technical designs for complex systems as well as plans for security, scalability and back up procedures. Integration Architect oversees all stages of the software development process concerning from planning to deployment. 

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